What is Metal?
Metals look shiny (they may be rusted, in which case they will shine again after polishing). When combined with other metals, they form a homogeneous mixture (solution) called an alloy. Metals tend to lose or share electrons when they react with other materials. Each metal has at least one basic oxide.
Most Metals are silvery, high-density, and relatively soft solids that deform easily. They have good electrical and thermal conductivity, fully packed structures, low ionization energy, and low electronegativity. These elements are found in nature in combination.
Some Metals appear colored (copper, cesium, gold), have low densities (e.g. beryllium and aluminum) and have very high melting points (e.g. tungsten and niobium), are liquid at or near room temperature (e.g. mercury and gallium), are brittle (e.g. bismuth and osmium), are not easily machined (e.g. titanium and rhenium), are noble (hardly oxidized, for example, gold and platinum), or have non-metallic structures (manganese). And gallium is structurally similar to white phosphorus and iodine, respectively).
Metals make up most of the elements and can be divided into several groups. From left to right in the periodic table, these elements include highly reactive alkali metals, less reactive alkaline earth metals, and then radioactive lanthanides and actinides. Old transition Metals (intermediate) and post-transition Metals (intermediate) are physically and chemically weak. There are also specialized sub-disciplines such as refractory Metals and precious metals.
Properties of Metals
Almost all Metals are solid, shiny, and white-gray. They have moderate to usually high reflectivity. They are also generally highly dense, except for some, such as alkali metals. They are more malleable and flexible and have medium to high thermal conductivity. Their melting point is often high and they alloy with other metals.
They are mostly found on earth in the form of compounds such as carbonates, silicates, phosphates, oxides, sulfides, and halides. They are malleable and do not break or crack. They are usually very dense. They melt at high temperatures. They pass electricity and heat. Their surface is polished and shiny and has a metallic gloss. There is a metal bond between the metal-forming particles They can be mixed
History of Metals
Metals have attracted human attention for centuries because people were able to use Metals to make high-performance tools that they used in both warfare and logistics. High-grade gold and silver have been known to mankind since the Stone Age.
Lead and silver have been mined from their ores since the fourth millennium BC. The original name of the metal was Ariana before 2000.
Metals are now mainly used in the manufacture of industrial tools, construction and bridge construction, vehicles, home appliances, etc., and the amount of metal mining is increasing every year compared to the previous year.
Metals Trade in the Middle East
The base Metals industry is the most important export industry in the Middle East after oil and petrochemicals. The results indicate that despite the comparative advantage of the Middle East in the main group of export goods of basic Metals industries, the competitive advantage for this group of products does not have a clear trend and stability.
Also, based on the obtained results, the growth rate of the comparative advantage index of the export of most of the basic Metals industry commodity groups fluctuates during the period of study. Production of non-ferrous Metals has increased by more than 120 percent over the past 20 years, with the development of non-ferrous Metals alongside ferrous Metals being one of the goals and plans. The economies of many countries in the Middle East depend on natural resources, which form the economic foundation of these countries.
In general, Middle Eastern countries' investment in the mining sector has been very low, except for a few countries in recent decades, and they have not paid much attention to it. In recent years, the Arab governments of the region have paid special attention to the use of information networks on the Internet to use and activate existing information and provide their resources and facilities in the mining sector.
The Middle East with its rich mineral resources and special construction position, including being within the mineral belt of copper, chromite, Serbian, aluminum, etc. in this region can be transformed by exploitive, extractive development and especially mineral processing in the economic position itself and be an important mineral hub at the international level.
According to experts, the future of the world's metal reserves, including iron, titanium, manganese, chromium, copper, and tin, its anti-hair, bismuth and platinum group, and non-metallic reserves, including perlite, potash, bauxite, and limonite, are promising. Deposits such as lead, zinc, gold, silver, indium, arsenic, diamonds are running low, and deposits such as copper, shingles, Cardium, strontium, natural graphite, and sulfur will soon be depleted.
Many global mining experts predict that at current consumption rates, the planet's economy over the next 70 years will undermine the current known reserves, which are likely to consume half of the world's current metals. Shortly, increasing dependence on essential mineral imports, plus global competition for scarce resource resources, will increase prices and bargain for exporting countries.
Metal Mining Reserves in the Middle East
The Arab countries of the Middle East, especially Iran, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Morocco, and Syria, have a significant share of iron resources, and their iron reserves are estimated at hundreds of millions of tons.
Many Metals elements are also used in the iron and steel industries, the most important of which is manganese found in Morocco and Egypt, nickel found in Jordan and Iraq. Chromium is also found in Jordan, Syria, and Iraq.
Cobalt in Morocco, Egypt, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, and tungsten in Morocco and Algeria are among the mineral resources that have a better status than other metal resources, and statistics show that reserves of this element are abundant in the Middle East, especially in Iran.
Lead and zinc are elements that are found together in nature and are very important in terms of consumption worldwide and are found in Iran, Morocco, and Algeria as well as in the bed in the Mediterranean Sea.
Industrial production includes Algerian mines and Metals such as mercury, zinc, silver, and iron ore. In addition to the above, Algeria has mineral resources of manganese, tungsten, gallium, copper, lead, and zinc.
In the past, mining in Algeria was controlled by the public sector, but some restructuring began, and the first mining law was passed in 1991, allowing Algerian private sector participation and foreign investment in mining and metals.
Egypt has reserves of manganese, nickel, chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten, gallium, copper, lead, zinc, and magnesium, as well as minerals. The main Metals used in ancient Egypt were copper, gold, silver, and iron.
The Egyptian Iron and Steel Production Complex began operations in 1973 and increased its production capacity to two million tons per year in 1993.
Mines and Metals in Morocco accounted for three percent of GDP in 1990, accounting for almost a third of Morocco's total exports. In Morocco, in addition to the mentioned products, there are also mineral resources of nickel, chromium, tungsten, and gallium. Morocco has reserves estimated at hundreds of billions of tons, and Morocco has three-quarters of the world's phosphate reserves. I
ron ore production, especially from the mining areas of northern Morocco, was 2 million tons in 1960, but within 20 years production increased to 6 million tons. Other Moroccan mineral resources are lead, copper, zinc, and manganese, which have produced almost constant production. Metals of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia's Metals
Saudi Arabia's mineral reserves include 4,500 different mines in the country, including a gold mine and sources of iron, manganese, nickel, tungsten, copper, lead, and zinc. The mining sector of Saudi Arabia is very important in this country because according to the government, it is the only strategy to diversify the Saudi economy.
Saudi Arabia is one of the richest countries in the Persian Gulf in terms of owning Metals mines. Saudi Arabia has more than 60 million tons of copper reserves. The Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources recently invited private investors to participate in a mining tender. Saudi Arabia has several iron ore mines with reserves of 84 million tons with a purity of 43%. Several mines in Saudi Arabia have been studied for possible bauxite.
Metals of Iran
Iran's location in one of the most important mountain ranges in the world between the Himalayas and the Alps and having orogenic conditions has caused Iran to have 10 types of mineral reserves that are the first in the world. There are 62 types of minerals in Iran, of which 6 billion tons of proven metal reserves have been calculated, while over 5 billion tons of potential Metals reserves in addition to the mentioned definite reserves have been estimated in Iran.
Steel production capacity in Iran reaches 10 million tons per year. Iran's copper mines contain 2 billion tons of ore with an average grade of three and seven-tenths percent. Iran has five percent of the world's proven copper reserves, 98 percent of the Middle East's copper reserves, and 30 percent of Asia's copper reserves.
Iran produces 150,000 tons of aluminum per year, which is the largest producer of aluminum in the Middle East. Iran is very rich in zinc ores and extensive studies show that the volume of Iran's lead and zinc mineral reserves is about 230 million tons.