Most Popular Natural Stones in the Middle East
Among materials used in the manufacture of buildings in stone. Stones are a relic of thousands of years of pressure and heat of the earth's inner layers to lime and sediment. There are more than a hundred types of natural stone, but only a few types, in particular, can be used as building stones. The Middle East stone industry is nothing short of stone industry of Italy, China and India.
Statistics show that the Middle East is the fourth largest producer of building stone in the world after Italy, China and India. The world's building stone reserves reach about 15 billion tons, including granites, marbles, travertine and alabaster, among which, Iran has taken the world first place due to the variety of colors and quality of Iranian-made stones with 4.7 million tons of world reserves.
The Middle East has a high potential for a variety of decorative and building stones due to the diversity of geological events and obvious rock cleavage stones which has happened as a result of the low forest cover and soils. One of the God-given advantages of the stone industry in the Middle East is the diversity of its mines. The stone mines include granite, marble, porcelain, crystal, travertine and alabaster, which also have high color varieties.
Now there are 8 thousand and 800 colored metals mines, industrial soils as well as building stones and stone facade in Iran, among which 1900 mines are allocated to decorative stones. The known capacity of Iran's mines is estimated at 47 billion tons, of which about 4 billion tons are related to decorative stone reserves.
The value of construction projects in the six Gulf Arab states, plus Iran and Iraq, will reach more than $ 697 billion over the next 10 years, according to figures from MEED magazine. Among these, if only the cost of building stones is 5% of this financial volume, for the next decade, there will be about $ 34.85 billion per year in the consumption field.
Turkey exported $ 33.6 million in 1991, a 20-fold increase to $ 622 million in 2004. The definite reserves of the world's decorative stone are about 1.2 billion tons and of this amount, about 15 billion tons of rocks have been identified in the Middle East, of which 53% is marble, 35% is granite, 10.5% is travertine and less than 1% is a marble.
Based on this, marble reserves are estimated at 2.16 billion, granite at about 1.5 billion tons, travertine at about 450 million tons, and marble at 44 million tons. The number of decorative Natural Stones extracted in the country last year was 10.6 million tons. The amount of extraction of decorative stones in the country last year was 10.6 million tons.
Uses of Building Stone
In the interior of the building, Natural Stones are used in the floor and walls. Depending on the type of stone, it can be used in the kitchen, bathroom, bathroom (on the floor and walls or as a stone bathtub), on the bedroom floor, hall floor, stairs, elevator frame, counter, etc. The main use of building stones in the exterior is to decorate the facade of the building.
The entrance stairs are also decorated with these stones. For paving open spaces, especially terraces, Natural Stones are very beautiful and give it a special color and polish. In addition to fencing or paving, Natural Stones are also used for decoration. Making stone sculptures, decorations such as stone columns and vases are among the other uses of building stones.
Properties of Middle Eastern Building Stone
Building stones should be light. The buildings should not be technically heavier than a certain limit. Therefore, according to the materials and bearing of each structure, the appropriate stone should be used. Some building stones are very heavy and strong and some are light. Of course, this lightness is a reason for less strength than heavier stones.
The stones used for construction are processed in the form of polishes, hounds, bushes, or brushes. In the processing stages, the stones used for buildings are processed; they use epoxy or resin. UV rays are then used to tighten the coating. This fills all the pores of the stone and in addition to the polished surface stone; they are also resistant to heat, discoloration, and water penetration. These stones are much easier to clean and can be re-polished every few years.
The stone must be in harmony with the part used. For example, a stone that has a high ability to absorb water is not suitable for use in bathrooms, toilets, or any place that deals with moisture. Building stone must be strong. This stone must be resistant to pressure and shocks that may enter it accidentally. The thickness of the stone is very important for use in the building.
Thinner stones are mostly used for floors and walls, but thicker stones are used as counters or bathtubs, or even decorative sculptures. Building stone must be resistant to temperature changes and chemical penetration. Choosing the right stone for the building is very important.
Building stone, depending on where it is used, must be resistant to temperature changes and the penetration of water or chemicals. Some of the Natural Stones used in construction; are even resistant to acid penetration. Building stones must have a high susceptibility to abrasion and bending caused by traffic over time; they are very resistant.
Middle Eastern Marble
Marble is a natural and attractive stone that is very similar in appearance to marble and is often confused with it. Some even think that these two stones are one.
Marble is one of the calcareous stones and due to its internal impurities, it has a cream to gray colors. The main constituent of marble is calcium carbonate and other materials such as calcite and dolomite can be mentioned in the structure of this stone. The structure of magnesium carbonate is also seen in Semi-marble. Based on this structure, Semi-marble is divided into dolomitic, calcite, and magnesium marbles.
There are different streaks inside the Semi-marble stones. These streaks are often made of quartz, hematite, limonite, and pyrite. Due to these streaks and their percentage, the color of the stone will also change. Marble is seen as white pure marble.
This stone has good abrasion and flexural resistance and is very suitable for indoor and outdoor uses of the building. This stone is one of the heavy stones in terms of weight and has a relatively high tolerance against heat, sunlight, temperature changes, etc. What is clear; due to the calcareous nature of this rock, water or chemicals should be expected to penetrate to some extent.
Marble is processed in the form of slabs, tiles, stairs, etc. and it is polished and strengthened with the help of resin and epoxy. The most popular marbles in the Middle East are Dehbid, Khoy, Peacock, Abadeh marble, Advari Semi-marble, and so on. Marble or onyx is one of the stones that has been seen in structures all over the world since ancient times.
Marble is a metamorphic stone. Lime has withstood a lot of pressure and heat in the subsoil. The main mineral is marble calcite and due to the presence of impurities that may be inside it; it takes on different colors. Marble is one of the most durable Natural Stones that is found in abundance in countries such as Italy and the Middle East.
Onyx is a magnificent and beautiful stone, which is why, in addition to being used in building structures, it is also used to make expensive sculptures and decorative items. Marble has a high resistance to water and heat penetration and is also very resistant to pressure, scratches, and chemicals. Even this stone does not change color in the face of external factors such as rain and sunlight. It is safe to say that marble is the only stone that can be used without restriction in all parts of a building.
Marble is suitable for use on stairs because it is resistant to abrasion and scratches. It can be used for toilets, baths, and humid places because it has a very low absorption value. Finally, it is very suitable even as a floor for open parts of the building. The amazing property of marble is the passage of light.
That is if light shines on the marble; due to the internal structure of the stone, light passes through it and returns it to the environment. This makes the place where the marble is used look brighter. Also, marble is a soothing stone that gives the environment a calm and pleasant atmosphere. Marble is found in different colors in nature.
But the onyx stone is pure white and there are no streaks in it. But blue, orange, pink, and green marbles are also very rare and expensive and are used to make expensive decorative materials.
Middle Eastern Travertine
When it comes to buying building facade stone; Travertine is one of the first choices. Travertine is very popular among people for building. Travertine is also a good stone for the flooring. Travertine is one of the porous limestone. This rock is the result of water-sediment in mines and hot springs or seabed sediments.
These sediments are formed in places that are low in height. Most of the quarries are located in Italy, the Middle East, Turkey, and Peru. Italy and the Middle East are among the major suppliers of travertine in the world. In appearance, this stone has a lot of porosity and due to the presence of compounds such as iron and calcium, it has various colors. Porosity is an advantage for travertine.
These imperfections make travertine an excellent insulator for sound and heat. The use of travertine as a building facade stone and building floor Natural Stones prevents sound from leaving the environment. Also, in the cold seasons of the year, hot air does not leave the environment. Also, this stone is resistant to sunlight or rain and does not change shape or color over time. The Middle East has countless travertine mines.
All of these stones have similar properties. But the purer the stone; it has less porosity. As a result, the cost of the stone will be much higher than other samples. Travertine mined in the Middle East; they are often light in color. Colors such as cream and gray are among the most popular colors in travertine.
Middle Eastern Granite
Granite is one of the most well-known stones in the Middle East, which can be used in almost any part of the building. The Middle East is one of the countries where this stone mine is found in abundance. Middle Eastern granite is also one of the world-class granites. Marble or granite is one of the igneous rocks and coarse and medium grain rocks can be seen in their texture. The minerals most often found in this rock are quartz, feldspar, and mica.
Granite is one of the heaviest stones that is used as a building stone. This stone is one of the oldest Natural Stones in the world and is used in many structures. Granite is processed in different sizes. According to features such as: High strength Abrasion and bending resistance High scratch resistance Resistant to water and chemical penetration Appearance charm Available in a variety of colors and so on.
It is very suitable for use in kitchen counters and cabinets, for use in bathrooms and as a stone bath, for use in the exterior of the building, and floor and wall stones in the interior. High resistance to abrasion, pollution, and lack of absorption of water and liquid makes it easy to use in areas such as stairs and floors of the building where traffic is high and used safely. This stone has been used for many years as a facade in important or expensive buildings.
Middle Eastern Crystal Marble
Crystal Marble is one of the most beautiful stones in the Middle East market. Calcareous or dolomitic crystalline rock. Due to the high pressure and temperature that this rock has endured under the underground layers; it is also called crystal metamorphic rock. Crystal Marbles belong to the large family of marbles.
The main mineral of this popular stone in the Middle East is calcite and in some of them, traces of quartz can be seen. This stone is processed in the form of slabs and used in many parts of the building. Porcelain slabs are of moderate quality in terms of quality and are very suitable for interior and exterior parts of the building. This stone has a small porosity and sticks well to the wall or floor with the help of mortar.
It is also a good stone for the exterior of the building due to its light color and high resistance to sun and moisture. The Crystal Marbles that are sent to the market are often without streaks and are white. Depending on the type of porcelain crystal that can be large or small; the type of use of porcelain stone is specified.
Porcelain stones that have smaller crystals are used to perform works of art such as sculpture and create works of art and decoration such as vases, picture frames, glasses, magnificent cigarette butts, etc. Porcelain stones can be used in small and dim environments or for use in bedroom walls, floor Natural Stones and even as a facade stone in outdoor spaces.
This stone because of its light color and smooth surface shows the environment larger than it is. So it is natural that the demand for it is high. The price of Crystal Marbles depends on many factors. From which mine the stone was extracted, how it is processed, in what sizes it is cut, etc. are important factors in the price of this stone.
But in general, Azna porcelain and Aligudarz porcelain are among the most popular of this family, and because of their different colors and reasonable prices; they are used in many projects.
Middle Eastern Limestone
Limestone belongs to the family of lime and sedimentary rocks. The main mineral that makes up limestone is calcite. A stone that is known for its style. Limestone, like all other lime rocks found in nature, has high water absorption and shows little resistance to impact and pressure. The reason limestone is so weak is a calcareous rock.
The chemical and physical structure of this stone is shaped in such a way that although it is beautiful, it is not suitable for use in the external parts of the building at all. Of course, just because a stone is not resistant does not mean that it cannot be used. Rather, in the process of processing the stone, they take actions that make the stone stronger and can be used for many years.
But in general, it is recommended to use this stone in interior decoration and parts that are less exposed to traffic. Limestone mines in the Middle East have light tones such as cream and white and are one-handed. In the meantime, Bozhan stone mine is an exception and has a dark color spectrum.
Limestone is one of the most affordable Natural Stones in terms of price, and due to its light color and one-handedness; it makes the space bigger and is very suitable for the surrounding environment.