Geography and Political Structure of Lebanon
Lebanon is an Asian country on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea with a history of several thousand years of civilization. The region was one part of the Levant and became an independent state after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the population is Muslim. Several tribes are living in Lebanon. About 30% of the country's population is Shiite.
Since the early 1970s, with the efforts of Imam Musa Sadr and the formation of the Lebanese Shiite Supreme Assembly and the Amal Movement, the cohesion and influence of the Lebanese Shiites have multiplied, and today Hezbollah is one of the most influential political parties and organizations in Lebanon. It is considered military in Lebanon.
It is a neighbor of occupied Palestine and has been repeatedly attacked by the Zionists and has suffered great human and economic damage. Israel occupied parts of the country, including Beirut, in 1982. In recent years, many Lebanese have migrated out of Lebanon due to feelings of insecurity on the part of the Zionist regime.
The political structure of Lebanon
According to the "sect agreement", the three forces in the country are divided between three main sects (Maronite Christian, Sunni and Shiite). According to the agreement, the presidency belongs to the Maronites, the prime minister to the Sunnis, and the speaker of parliament to the Shiites. Given that orthodox Christians are numerically the second largest within the Lebanese Christian sect, the Deputy Prime Minister and Deputy Speaker of Parliament are selected from this tribe.
This sectarian quota has been considered in more detail in the Lebanese parliament, and the share of other Lebanese tribes, especially minorities, has been taken into account in the parliament. The Lebanese parliament has 128 members, divided equally between Christians and Muslims. This relative division has also been implemented within each of the two Christian and Muslim tribes, and a quota has been set for all 18 Lebanese tribes in proportion to the population of that tribe. According to the constitution, the deputies are elected by direct popular vote for a four-year term.
The president, who is the president, is elected by a two-thirds majority for a six-year term. The President, after consulting with the Members of Parliament and based on the introduction of a majority of one-half plus one of the Members of Parliament, shall nominate the Prime Minister and instruct him to form a Cabinet.
The economic situation in Lebanon is divided into several parts. The least important economic sector in this country belongs to agriculture. Lebanon's industry is mainly active in the cosmetics, food, pharmaceutical, and medical sectors. It exports dairy products and clothing to Europe.
Although Lebanon is in a good position in terms of agricultural activities (in terms of water supply and soil fertility), it does not have a large agricultural sector. The agricultural sector is Lebanon's least important economy, accounting for only 12 percent of the workforce, and accounts for only 10 percent of GDP, putting it at the bottom of the list. Of course, Lebanon intends to transform the agricultural industry by 2020 attract billions of dollars in agricultural income.
Industry of Lebanon
Despite the lack of industrial raw materials and pure dependence on the Arab countries, Lebanon is the leading Arab country in terms of fashion and clothing, cosmetics, food, construction materials, pharmaceutical-medical industries due to the free and duty-free market. Is one of the exporters of dairy and clothing to Europe?
Services and trade of Lebanon
Lebanon's 1975-90 Civil War severely damaged Lebanon's economic infrastructure, halved domestic production, and shaken Lebanon's position as a transit center for goods and banking in the Middle East. Peace enabled the central government to take control of Beirut, collect taxes, and gain access to government and border facilities. The well-established banking system, small and large factories, household money, banking services, industrial and agricultural exports, and international aid as the main sources of foreign exchange have contributed to economic recovery.
Before the 2006 Lebanese-Israeli war, the Lebanese economy grew rapidly, with bank assets reaching more than $ 70 billion. Although the tourism sector declined by 10 percent in 2005, more than 1.2 million tourists visited Lebanon. Market investment peaked at more than $ 7 billion at the end of January 2006. The start of the war in August-June 2006 caused severe damage to Lebanon's shaky economy, especially the tourism sector. According to an initial report published by the Ministry of Finance on August 30, 2006, a major economic downturn will result from the war.
Beirut International Airport reopened in September 2006, and efforts to improve Lebanon's economy have accelerated. Major donors to Lebanon's reconstruction include Saudi Arabia ($ 1.5 billion), the European Union ($ 1 billion), and some other Persian Gulf states with more than $ 800 million.
Its main ports are Beirut, Tripoli, and Tire, which are located on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon is called the bride of the Middle East, and Beirut is one of the top cities in the Arab world in terms of quality of life. The official languages in this country are Arabic, English, and French. The most important free trade zones of this country are the port of Beirut, Tripoli, or Trapani.
Major Products of Lebanon
Citrus fruits, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, sheep, and goats.
Major industrial products of Lebanon:
The food industry, jewelry, textiles, chemicals, wood products, and oil refining.
Major mineral products of Lebanon:
Precious stones, fertilizers, salt, iron ore, and cement. The country has a GDP of $ 64 billion. The country's GDP growth rate is 1.5. The per capita income of each Lebanese is $ 15,800.
Lebanese exports and imports:
Countries importing goods from Lebanon:
Saudi Arabia 9%, South Africa 21.1%, Iraq 5.4%, Syria 6.7% and UAE 8%.
Exporting countries to Lebanon:
China 11.2 percent, Italy 7.5 percent, the United States 6.3 percent, Germany 6.2 percent, and Greece 5.7 percent.
Lebanese goods exported to the world:
Unworked and made gold, books and brochures, copper products, scrap and iron scrap, jewelry and mechanical appliances, inorganic chemical products, medicine, chocolate, vegetables and edible fruits, perfumes and sanitary ware, plastics, sugar, and vehicles.
Lebanese goods imported from the world:
Mineral fuels, petroleum products, iron and metals, machinery and mechanical appliances, land vehicles, natural pearls and precious stones, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, live animals, textiles, ceramics, dairy products, and cereals.
Lebanon's relations with the world in 2018 (billion dollars):
- Exports: 3.8.
- Imports: 20.3.
- Trade balance:-16.6.
- Trade volume: 24.1.
Iranian goods exported to Lebanon:
Carpets, pistachio kernels, ribbed rebar, pistachios, machine-made carpets, handmade silk carpets, liquid dough, wire, shrimp, and istek Beer.
Iranian goods imported from Lebanon:
Vegetable seeds, fertilizers, potassium sulfate, emulsifying oil, cocoa powder, diesel engine, power plant components, and parts, diesel generators, shell pellets, books, autoclaves, and dentistry.
Export Infrastructure and Marketing Strategies in Lebanon
The existing infrastructure and capacities in the country for exporting products to Lebanon and Iran's marketing strategies for being present in this country are examined. Examining the status of the road, rail, sea, and airlines, banking relations and exchanges, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in the Lebanese market, and suggestions and executive strategies for marketing in this country are the most important topics to be studied.
Transportation Infrastructure of Lebanon
Although the road between the two countries is not closed, due to the distance, the goods traded between other countries and Lebanon are currently transported less by land. The main road between Iran and Lebanon passes through Iraq and Jordan, which is not reliable due to the unfavorable conditions in Iraq.
The other way is the route of Turkey and Syria, which connects Iran and Lebanon, and it is a long way. For this reason, most of the transit of goods between the two countries is done by sea. Iran and Lebanon both use rail transit within their territory and with neighboring countries. But at present, the railways of the two countries are not connected and it is not possible to transmit anything.
Customs laws of Lebanon
The Lebanese customs regime and foreign trade laws have been greatly facilitated in recent years and the Lebanese government has imposed very low tariff rates on imported goods. Lebanon does not show any levies on imports but implements a complex system of export and import licenses.
Its complex customs is an alternative to customs barriers, high tariffs, and quotas which the country could establish for foreign goods. In Lebanon, the import of oil and petroleum products by 20 local companies and import licenses or export can be transferred to other branches.
Merchants in violation of regulations, have to pay a fine to the customs and the exporter and large quantities of consumer goods do not need a license. In total, for reasons of the location of Lebanese as a transit point for goods between some farmers and the need for transits some goods for Europe, Ian farmer Regulations and frameworks or in the field
Customs, in addition to creating a stable source of income, other countries need to be able to
Some of the goods that are banned from entering Lebanon include the following:
- Cars or vehicles are older than eight years.
- Guns, ammunition, and military equipment.
- Products that violate public morality and decency.
- Products were dangerous to public health.
Agricultural products are among the goods that the Lebanese customs clearly state many of its items are specified for import to this country. In these fields, the following categories can be provided:
- Goods in need of seasonal license: Cucurbits, vegetables, Golabay, Grapes, apricots, and wildflowers.
- Goods that need a license during the year: olives, pineapple seeds, onions and potatoes, and silk cocoons.
- Prohibited agricultural goods: lemons, apples, bales, cherries, cherries, strawberries, plums, almonds, and leafy vegetables.
- Goods in need other than those from the Ministry of Foreign Trade: wheat, base products, olive oil, orange juice, sap juice, mustard seeds, and silkworm.
- Goods in need of a license from the Ministry of Industry: white cement, tar, oil, stone, fuel oils, silk thread, electrical wires, unprocessed leather, industrial machinery, and equipment.
Goods in need of a license from other Lebanese ministries:
- Ministry of Health: Pharmaceutical items.
- Ministry of Environment: Chemicals.
According to Lebanese customs regulations, pharmaceutical and food items must be labeled by information, manufacturer's name, date of production, expiration date and do not carry the goods.
Goods that are unlabeled due to violation of customs regulations. It is worth mentioning that tobacco in Lebanon is one of the exclusive rights of imports and exports.
Transport ways of Lebanon
Although the road between some countries is not closed, it is far away due to
Currently, goods traded between Iran and Lebanon are less likely to be transported by land. The main road between Iran and Lebanon passes through Iraq and Jordan, which is due to unfavorable conditions. Iraq, this path is not reliable. Another way is the way of farmers of Turkey and Savory Asat which connects Iran and Lebanon and is a long way. Therefore, more goods transit between the two countries is done by sea.
Iran and Lebanon both from rail transit within their territory and use it with neighboring countries. Now, the railway line of the two countries is not connected and freight transits between Iran and Lebanon using trains do not exist.
The sea route is one of the main canals between Iran and Lebanon or on land. It is commercial. Iran Shipping Network, Container Goods to Lebanon Moves by sea line and the ports of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Beirut and Tripoli are the most important Lebanese ports in the field of export, import, and transit of goods.
There is a direct and permanent flight between Iran and Lebanon airports. Now the company Iranair Airlines has two direct flights on Mondays and Wednesdays every week on the way from Tehran to Beirut. Return flights are also operated on the same days. The duration of flights between Iran and Lebanon is two hours and twenty minutes. Lebanon has eight airports, of which five
Asphalt airport and three dirt airports. The Biaraut International Airport has the most facilities and equipment in those planes and large foreign flights are also possible to land.