Geography and language of Israel
Israel (Hebrew: יִשְרָאֵל; Arabic: اسْرائيل), the official name of the State of Israel (Hebrew: יִשְרָאֵל יִשְרָאֵל مِدینات یِسْرائيل), a country in West Asia is located on the southeast coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the north coast of the Red Sea. Israel is bordered to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east by Jordan, to the east and west by the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and the southeast by Egypt. Although the country has a relatively small area, it has a variety of geographical features.
The economic and scientific center of Israel is Tel Aviv, while its center of government is in Jerusalem, the city that Israel considers its capital; Jerusalem is recognized as the capital of this country by most countries, but several countries do not recognize it. Israel is a developed country and its type of government is a parliamentary republic.
It has a parliamentary system and public suffrage, in which the president is a ceremonial official, with the prime minister as head of state and the Knesset (Israeli parliament) as the legislature. In 2008, Israel was ranked 41st in the world in terms of GDP.
Israel has the best academic ranking in the Middle East in terms of academic rankings, ranking 23rd in the world in terms of the Human Development Index in 20 Due to Israel's immigrant structure, street names in Israel are written in three languages: Hebrew, Arabic, and English.
Hebrew is the only official language of Israel. Other common languages in Israel include Arabic, English, Russian, and Yiddish (common among the Jews of Russia, Poland, and Germany, which is a mixture of German and Hebrew).
The Israeli Ministry of Education has mandated the teaching of Arabic in all public schools. The purpose of this work is to bring the two cultures of Judaism and Arabia closer together. Hebrew and Arabic are recognized as official languages in the Israeli parliament, and delegates can speak Arabic in the Knesset if they wish.
Due to the population structure of Israel, which is mainly made up of Jews and Arabs, the names of all the streets in the country are written in both Hebrew and Arabic, and all broadcast films must have Hebrew and Arabic subtitles.
Culture and Economy of Israel
Due to its extensive demographic structure, Israel is home to people with diverse cultures. Israel is a country that includes people of different religions and cultures, people who strongly believe in their beliefs.
Racism is seen in Israel in two ways: racism by anti-Arab Jews and racial discrimination between various Jewish groups (including against Ethiopian Jews, Indian Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and colored Jews). Discrimination against Muslim Arabs is seen in a variety of dimensions, including policies, education, personal views, and the media.
The Israeli economy
Israel is considered to be the most advanced country in terms of industrial and economic development in the region of West Asia and the Middle East. The quality of education in Israeli education centers and the creation of a highly motivated and educated society to a large extent motivate the country to boost high-tech technologies and rapid economic development.
Israel is the second country after the United States in having start-ups outside North America, the country with the largest number of companies listed on the Nasdaq Stock Exchange.
In 2010, Israel was ranked 17th in the world in terms of economic development by the prestigious IMD. In the same year, the Israeli economy was ranked as the world's most resilient economy in the face of crises, and also ranked first in terms of investment in development and research centers.
The country has large natural gas reserves on its shores in the Mediterranean Sea, which is expected to transform the country from a gas importer to an exporter.
Since 1985, the United States has provided about $ 3 billion a year in aid to Israel. Since 1976, Israel has received the largest amount of US annual foreign aid. In addition, since World War II, the United States has provided the largest total of financial assistance to Israel in dollar per year, yet $ 3.1 billion is a small part of Israel's annual budget.
Due to its location in the Middle East, which is arid, water-scarce, and highly exposed to sunlight, Israel has turned its attention to high-efficiency technologies and is a leader in the development of solar energy. Electricity is geothermal and water management and protection and the development of edge technologies in the field of software, communications, and the country's life sciences, which are often concentrated in Silicon Valley, are compared to those of the US Governor Silicon Valley.
According to a 2010 report. From the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), of which Israel is a member, Israel ranks first in the world in research and development spending on GDP. Intel and Microsoft They developed their overseas development in Israel and other multinational technology companies such as IBM, Google, Apple, Hewlett-Packard (HP), Cisco Systems, Facebook, Motorola, and several others.
Research and development facilities have been opened in the country in the Silicon Valley region In addition to these foreign companies, many high-tech Israeli companies are based in the region.
Agriculture and industry in Israeli
It ranks highest in the Middle East in terms of life expectancy, with one of the highest life expectancy rates in the world. The Israeli border, press, and media have the highest level of freedom among the countries of the Middle East.
In the field of agriculture, Israel is one of the pioneers of high-quality crop production worldwide. Israeli farmers and researchers are engaged in extensive coordination and cooperation in developing and applying sophisticated scientific methods in various fields of agriculture.
Electronic equipment and machinery designed and manufactured in Israel are widely used in agricultural activities, from irrigation and harvesting to milk production and packaging.
Utilizing the maximum possible volume of water resources and barren fields, today Israel has reached the point of food production, which is one of its exporters.
Imports of agricultural materials include wheat, meat, tea, coffee, rice, and sugar, while Israel is a major exporter of roses, watermelons, kiwis, raspberries, tomatoes, and peppers. In winter, European and American markets are importers of Israeli agricultural products.
Agricultural products packaging workshop
Israeli industry has flexible and diverse characteristics. Over the past two decades, the percentage of industrial exports has exceeded half of the country's total industrial production. More specifically, over two decades, Israel's industrial exports have increased sixfold, from $ 6 billion in 1985 to $ 35.6 billion in 2005.
Although Israel lacks major raw material mines, using a high-quality workforce, the country's industries have focused on producing products that are of a high quality and feature innovations and innovations. Scientific utilization. In products such as electronic medicine, agricultural technology, communications, chemical materials and industries, computer software and hardware, and solar energy, Israeli products are the world's leading products.
Israel has made good progress in the printing software industry
Meanwhile, the diamond cutting industry in Israel is the largest of its kind in the world. About 30 percent of Israel's industrial exports are diamonds, while Israel itself has no diamond mines and must import raw diamonds from other countries and, after milling, sell them on the world market and some developing countries that have turned to this field in recent years will find it difficult to compete. In 2005, Israel's diamond exports totaled $ 10.2 billion, of which Israel imported $ 9.2 billion worth of raw diamonds.
Israel's annual exports
Although Israel's relations with the Persian Gulf’s Arab states are not formally established, trade between them is more than $ 1 billion a year, the Blair Institute for Global Change wrote in a report.
According to ISNA, quoting Russia Today, the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, in a report, although Israel and the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf do not announce the existence of any formal relations between the two sides, the trade exchanges between them annually costs more than one billion dollars.
According to the institute's analysis in 2016, the value of Israeli exports to GCC countries goes beyond the regime's exports to allied countries with strong economies such as Russia and Japan.
Israel's foreign trade documents do not show direct trade between the regime and the Persian Gulf‘s Arab states, but the Blair Institute in an analysis of the transfer of Israeli products through third countries to the Gulf states, the Israeli news site NEWS 24 reported. It shows that the value of these trade exchanges is close to one billion dollars annually.
According to the report, Israel's exports to these countries may multiply if relations become formal.
It is reported that Israeli products in some markets in the Arab Gulf countries, such as Qatar, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia, maybe imported through Jordan.
Israel has also announced plans to rehabilitate an oil and gas pipeline between Iraq and the port of Haifa, north of the occupied territories.
In this regard, Tel Aviv has announced the existence of a plan to build a railway line from the occupied territories to the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, which passes through Jordan, and the purpose of this plan is to try to absorb the Persian Gulf’s oil to transfer it from Haifa port to European and American markets to reduce the cost of transporting tankers through the Persian Gulf to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal.
Despite the lack of formal relations between Israel and the Gulf states, "signs of normalization of relations" have recently been seen, and these countries seek to cooperate with Israel in the field of security and use the experience of this regime, the Israeli news site NEWS 24 reported. They are facing a "common enemy", namely Iran.
The news site cited some of these signs, including the fact that Riyadh has allowed planes flying to the occupied territories to cross Saudi airspace. Also late last June, the Israeli delegation officially participated in the UNESCO conference in Bahrain. In addition, Manama supported the regime's attacks on Syria with the aim of "destroying sources of danger" and described the Israeli attacks as "self-defense" against Iran.
Earlier, Israeli Communications Minister Ayub Qara had asked Riyadh to allow Israeli Muslims to travel directly from the occupied territories to Saudi Arabia, instead of traveling from Jordan to Saudi Arabia.
In this regard, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated: Emphasizing that the regime enjoys secret relations with many Islamic countries, it emphasizes that current relations with Arab countries have become more extensive than ever during Israel's history.
Israel Transportation and Communications
Rail shipment: The Gaza Strip has a small and limited network of roads. The area has a standard north-south lane that has been destroyed and left unused, with few lines left. This railway used to end in the south with the Egyptian railway and in the north with the Israeli railway.
Sea shipment: Ships are not allowed to enter or leave the Gaza Strip by sea, and the Israeli navy is blocking the passage of ships to Gaza. Goods enter Gaza through the Rafah crossing in southern Gaza, bordering Egypt, and five crossings on the Israeli border. In addition, in southern Gaza, people enter the Gaza Strip from Egypt by digging tunnels.
Port of Gaza
The construction of the only port in the Gaza Strip has been abandoned after the start of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in 2000. Fishing takes place off the coast of Gaza. The Israeli army only allows fishermen in Gaza to fish 5.5 km offshore. This distance was previously 11 km but was reduced at the beginning of 2014.
Air shipment: Gaza International Airport was opened on November 24, 1998, following the agreements reached in the Second Oslo Accords of 1995 and the 1998 Wi-Fi Memorandum of Understanding. The airport was built for $ 86 million by Japan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Germany, and Morocco in the southern Gaza Strip. The airport had a capacity of 700,000 people a year.
The airport was closed by Israeli order in October 2000, and its runway was destroyed by Israeli defense forces in December 2001. The airport has since been renamed Yasser Arafat International Airport.
Telephone communication lines
The Gaza Strip has a basic fixed telephone system provided by an aerial cable system, as well as a wide range of mobile services provided by a platform (Jowl) or Israeli service providers such as Cellcom. Four companies in the Gaza Strip are offering Internet services that are currently competing with each other over high-speed Internet and telephone Internet.
Most households in Gaza have radio and television (70%), and about 20% have a personal computer. People living in the Gaza Strip have satellite TV channels (Al-Jazeera, Egyptian and Lebanese TV channels, etc.), local private channels, as well as Palestinian radio and the first and second Israeli radio and television channels.