What is aluminum?
Aluminum is a bluish-white (silver) metal. Although it is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust (about 8%), it does not exist in pure form and is obtained from mineral ore components. Aluminum is used in transportation, packaging, construction, electricity, etc. The unique combination and excellent properties of Aluminum make it one of the most important engineering materials.
Light mass, high strength, high resistance to corrosion, and rust make Aluminum an excellent metal. Aluminum is recyclable and environmentally friendly. Aluminum is durable and works without decay for years. Aluminum is the most widely used metal after iron, both in terms of quality and value, and is important in almost all sectors of the industry.
In terms of both quality and value, Aluminum is the most widely used metal after iron and is important in almost all sectors of the industry. Aluminum is pure, soft, and weak, but it can form alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon, and other elements that have a variety of useful properties.
These alloys form important components of aircraft and rockets. When Aluminum is evaporated in a vacuum, it forms a coating that reflects both visible light and radiant heat. These coatings form a thin layer of protective Aluminum oxide that does not lose its properties like silver coatings. Another use for this metal is in the mirror layer of astronomical telescopes.
Pure Aluminum lacks strength and is very flexible. But the alloy of this element with the elements of copper, magnesium, silicon, and manganese has many applications in various industries.
What are the characteristics of aluminum?
High strength to weight ratio:
There is a combination of high strength and lightweight in only a few materials in nature. The high strength of some Aluminum alloys is comparable to the strength of steel.
Aluminum can be deformed by various methods of forming metals. Aluminum can also be connected by welding, soldering, gluing, and riveting.
Some Aluminum alloys can regain their original state after the force is removed if they are affected by force or impact in a certain range.
High thermal conductivity:
Aluminum is the most conductive metal after silver, copper, and gold, which is why it is used in the manufacture of kitchen utensils, water, and oil heat exchangers.
Solid Aluminum alloys with a surface oxide layer are non-toxic.
In an equal volume, aluminum, like copper, passes about 62% of its electricity. It has the highest electrical conductivity after copper, copper, and gold.
Ability to reflect light, Aluminum Ability to reflect more than 80% of visible light rays and invisible rays that have a visible wavelength at both ends of the light spectrum. Non-sparking, although Aluminum has a very high electrical conductivity, it does not produce sparks.
What are the uses of aluminum?
Cans and packages
The use of Aluminum in the body and top and bottom of cans is the most important use of Aluminum in this part of the industry, which makes up 90% of it.
High resistance to low-weight Aluminum causes it to be used in the construction of rotating parts of trains, which allows the train to carry more fuel and cargo.
Aluminum rails can be extended in a variety of magnetic rail systems.
Construction of freight and passenger carriages, locomotives, and subways mentioned.
Aluminum is an essential factor for weight loss. This weight loss has increased efficiency and less fuel consumption in the car.
Aluminum, along with a small percentage of silica, forms zinc-resistant manganese, magnesium, copper, or lithium, alloys resistant to corrosion, and rust for packaging, containers, electrical goods, building materials, aerospace, and automobiles. Is used.
The most important factors in this area are low weight, high ductility, high resistance to rust, low maintenance costs, long life, and no need to paint.
The low weight of Aluminum reduces the cost of construction and reduces construction time.
China and the United States are the largest consumers of Aluminum in construction.
Aluminum has been used for the upper part of high-pressure transmission towers since the 1920s.
High strength compared to low weight, makes it possible to build tall and strong masts that reduce the price of the transmission system.
Machinery and equipment
This section includes agricultural industries, construction, and factory equipment.
These include irrigation pipes, ladders, scaffolding, fittings, and other hardware.
- Air conditioners, refrigerators, and freezers, and washing machines make up a large part of the total demand for aluminum.
- Refining and galvanizing steel
- Aluminum is used to provide various types of insulation and as a good heat conductor in the preparation of kitchen utensils.
- Aluminum is the second most conductive element after electric copper and due to the creation of very strong electrical lines, it is used to provide high voltage transmission wires.
- Bauxites are used in the preparation of cement and fixed paint
- Aluminum oxide powder in the form of bauxite mineral is used to prepare Aluminum sulfate and sodium aluminate in water treatment.
- Aluminum sulfate is also used in the paper and textile industries.
- Aluminum alloys are widely used in commercial and military aircraft due to their high tensile strength due to their low weight.
- Aluminum is often rust-resistant and can be used for a long time.
- Although the electrical conductivity of this element is 60% copper, it is used in the transmission line industry due to its lightweight.
Are the effects of aluminum harmful to health?
When the concentration of Aluminum in the environment increases, it has severe effects on human health. Water-soluble Aluminum is dangerous. Particles of Aluminum that dissolve in water are called ionic particles, for example, Aluminum chloride. Other ways to increase the amount of Aluminum in the body are to breathe and make skin-to-skin contact with aluminum.
Prolonged contact with Aluminum damages the central nervous system, causes insanity, loses memory, causes lethargy, and causes severe chills and seizures. Breathing Aluminum or Aluminum oxide powder is also pathogenic. Aluminum also accumulates in plants and animals that feed on it, and the effect of Aluminum respiration on animals is respiratory problems, weight loss, and decreased activity.
Aluminum ions react with phosphate. The reaction of ions with phosphate causes a phosphate deficiency in aquatic organisms. Groundwater, which is high in aluminum, damages tree roots.
What are aluminum ingots, types, price and applications?
The monetary value of Aluminum ingots is affected by some issues, which are discussed below:
- Size and dimensions of ingot construction and design
- The type of alloy used in the ingot.
- The thickness that is considered in the production stages.
- Final weight
- Aluminum prices in the metals market
- Exchange rates in the global market
- Aluminum alloys
Aluminum alloys are alloys with metallic properties and contain 90-96% Aluminum and one or more other metals that will improve the properties of aluminum. In addition to the main alloying elements, these alloys also contain several minor alloying elements that have a great impact on the final properties of the alloy.
Although many metals form alloys with aluminum, few of these elements have good solubility in Aluminum for being the main alloying elements, with only zinc, magnesium, copper, and silicon being highly soluble.
What is an Aluminum ingot?
One-piece ingots are usually made of metals that are made of almost pure materials. Ingots are used in suitable rectangular shapes for further processing. In steelmaking, the first step among semi-finished casting products is ingots.
Types of Aluminum ingots
These types of ingots generally include the following:
This type of Aluminum ingot is made of Aluminum alloys, which is used in the automotive industry as well as in manufacturing cast parts.
The purity of this type of ingot is 99.85%, so it is very pure. 1000 1,000 ingots are used to make alloys, parts, and sanitary ware.
Slab ingots, which are usually produced in sizes of 300 * 1060 and 270 *1060 square millimeters, are used to produce various types of coils, belts, sheets, and the like.
T-bar ingots are made of pure E.C. alloy and are used in the manufacture of home appliances, cables, and the like. T-bar is generally used to produce electrical conductors.
This ingot is mostly used in the extrusion industry and can be produced in different diameters that meet international AA standards.
What is the basis for naming aluminum alloys? How to understand the names of Aluminum?
These numbers indicate that in the manufacturing process elements have been added to the alloys and made a special group of these metals.
ANSI and AA
The ANSI and AA (Aluminum Association) naming system uses a four-digit numbering mechanism for used alloys and a three-digit numbering system for cast alloys. The first number represents the metal grouping and the most important alloying element added to the alloy.
What is the basis for designation Aluminum extensions?
In addition to alloy numbering, the type of heat treatment process or alloy fabrication process is also the basis for specifying an alloy. For this naming, English letters are used at the end of the alloy name, for example, AA 2024-T4.
This designation is called ANSI H35.1 under the American National Standard and is called the "Defined Temper System" and is used for all production methods. Depending on the production process, one of the letters is used, which we introduce in the following:
- F for no change and mode of production
- O for annealed mode
- H for hardened strain mode (cooled work)
- W for heat treatment of solubilization
- T is used for other heat treatments such as hard deposition in naming alloys.
For the first number in the HXX category
- H1 hardened strain without heat treatment
- H2 strain hardened and slightly annealed
- H3 strain hardened and stabilized by low-temperature heat treatment
The second number in the HXX category (if any) indicates the amount of stiffness obtained relative to the maximum stiffness in that stiffening operation.
- HX2 indicates a hardness of 4.1 of the maximum hardness.
- HX4 indicates a hardness of 2.1 of the maximum hardness.
- HX6 indicates a hardness of 3.4 maximum hardness.
- HX8 indicates maximum stiffness.
- HX9 indicates higher hardness than maximum hardness.
T is for the condition where the alloys have been heating treated. This mode indicates stable tempers (except for the F, O, or H modes, as opposed to the W naming mode).
- T1 cooled from a shaping process, with high temperature and aged naturally
- T2 cooled from a shaping process, with high temperature, the work cooled and aged naturally
- T3 heat treatment of soluble cooled and naturally aged work
- T4 Heat treatment of soluble and naturally aged type
- T5 is cooled by a high-temperature forming process and artificially aged
- T6 heat treatment of artificially solubilized and aged type
- T7 heat treatment of solubilized and stable type
- T8 heat treatment of solubilized type artificially cooled, and aged work
- T9 heat treatment of solubilized type, artificially aged and then cooled work
- T10 cooled by a high-temperature forming process, artificially cooled, and aged work
In some cases, T-category extensions have more than one digit, such as AA 224-T351 or AA 6061-T651, in which case the following should be considered. TX51 stands for stress relief after stretching after heat treatment of the first number (x number).
What are the factors influencing the price of aluminum ingots?
One of the factors that are very influential in the price of ingots is the size and dimensions that are used in the manufacture and design of ingots.
- The type of alloy used in the ingot greatly affects its price.
- The thickness of the ingot that is considered for it in the production process affects its price.
- The final weight of the ingot
- The price of ingots is related to the price of aluminum, i.e. according to the price of Aluminum in the metal market, it is possible to understand approximately the price of ingots.
- Another influential factor is the exchange rate of the world currency.
Types of Aluminum Billets
- Imported Billets: such as tickets imported from Dubal, Rosal, Talco, and other companies.
- Standard Billet: includes Iralco and Al-Mahdi products, which are known in the market as Billet.
- Billet: DC Billets produced from molten Aluminum by DC casting method, which is mainly used due to the difference with the products of Iralco and Al-Mahdi.
Remelting or conversion billets: These are billets that are produced from remelting Aluminum scrap that has less alloying.
Names of semi-finished casting products:
- Sheet metal
What is aluminum wire and where is it used?
As raw materials for the production of Aluminum wires and cables. The production stages of Aluminum rods include smelting operations, storage of molten materials, continuous casting by casting machine, and rolling stage by a rod milling machine. Finally, the produced wire is packed in a coil.
The difference between ingots, billets, blooms, and slabs of these 4 products are semi-finished steel goods (intermediate rolled steel products) that must be processed in one or more stages to become the final product. The difference between these products is in the dimensions and shape of their cross-section.
What are different types of aluminum products?
What is an ingot?
The length of this product is less than 2 meters and its dimensions are optimized for transporting steel and storing it. Its transverse cross-sectional shape is trapezoidal.
What is a billet?
unlike ingots, is long and its cross-sectional area is a circle or square with a width of less than 15 cm (or a cross-sectional area of fewer than 230 cm2). The billet is obtained by direct casting, extrusion (extrusion), or by rolling ingots. Billets are mostly used to produce rebars and wires.
What is Bloom?
Bloom: If the width of the billet is more than 15 cm (or the cross-section is more than 230 cm2), it is called bloom, and for this reason, usually these two products are in one category (Bloom and Billet). Bloom is used to making rails, beams, cans, studs, shields, and so on.
What is a slab?
Slab cross-section, unlike bloom and billet, is not square but rectangular (usually 230 mm thick, 1.25 m wide, and 12 mm long). Slabs are used to make steel sheets, plates, and so on.
Note: Today, the technologies used in manufacturing the steel products in the later stages of obtaining molten steel, i.e. casting and rolling, are more or less the same. But to obtain molten or crude steel, various technologies can be used, including blast furnace (BF), arc furnace (EAF), and induction furnace (IMF) methods. Although most of the crude steel production in the world is produced by the blast furnace method, for various reasons, the use of the electric furnace method, especially in Iran, is more justifiable.
What is Aluminum slab and its use?
Slab cross-section, unlike bloom and billet, is not square but rectangular (usually 230 mm thick, 1.25 m wide, and 12 mm long). Slabs are used to make steel sheets, plates, and so on.
The importance of manufacturing Aluminum slabs among various steel products cannot be ignored. In addition to the fact that the production of the Aluminum slab with world quality has caused us to witness the preparation and manufacture of various steel products with different applications and special brands.
In the Middle East and Iran, different sectors of steel products are active, and to continue their activities, they need to maintain their relationship with the producers of this product and meet their needs. The production of steel products is done in three different sectors. Sponge iron and sometimes scrap iron and casting it in special casting molds, produce products called billets and slabs and then provide the possibility of manufacturing different steel sections using these two products.
Although most of the crude steel production in the world is produced by the blast furnace method, for various reasons, the use of the electric furnace method, especially in Iran, is more justifiable.
This product is also used in the manufacture of steel sheets, plates, and so on. Slabs are also one of the intermediate products used by some steel mills, which are used to produce sheets.
Therefore, machines with special facilities should be used to cut this product. It should also be noted that billets and slabs are the brands of 22 steel products that are used in the manufacture of various types of sections and steel products.
Also, the great importance and application of this product in various industries have led to the observance of international standards in manufacturing this product from year 1 until now, and that is why by increasing the quality of slabs, this product has its market and also been found abroad.
What is aluminum foil and what are its features and uses?
Aluminum foil is one of the most important and widely used products of Aluminum metal. Aluminum with the atomic number 13 in the periodic table, after oxygen and silicon, is the most abundant element and the most common metal found in the earth's crust and makes up about 8% of the earth's crust. But it does not exist naturally as a metal.
Aluminum ore (bauxite) must first be extracted and then chemically refined through a waste process to produce a intermediate product, Aluminum oxide (alumina). Alumina is then refined using the electrolyte process and converted to pure metal through the Hall-Heroult Process. Aluminum is 100% recyclable without losing its properties.
The physical properties of Aluminum make it light and shiny metal, strong, anti-corrosion, anti-spark, non-magnetic, non-toxic, and non-combustible. Due to the complexities of refining Aluminum from stone, Aluminum was considered rarer and more valuable than gold or silver for most of the nineteenth century.
As Aluminum passes through the rollers under pressure, it becomes thinner and longer in the direction in which it moves. This simple process is the basis for the production of sheets, sheets, and Aluminum foil. Aluminum sheets can be cut on the guillotine using a chainsaw with the correct blade, or some very thin Aluminum sheets can be cut with a sharp blade or tin hooks.
An Aluminum sheet is easily formed or bent using hand tools. It is easy to make because sheet products can be welded with the right skills and equipment and can be easily connected using nails and other traditional fasteners. Aluminum foil drills are easy, and the devices that make Aluminum foil make it an ideal choice for a wide range of projects.
Aluminum foil can be recycled continuously:
Aluminum plate and sheet can be recycled continuously without losing their properties. Recycling Aluminum plates and sheets save more than 90% of the energy needed in other ways to produce primary aluminum.
Highest Armor Performance Standards:
Grade Aluminum sheet meets the highest US military performance standards. Aluminum armor can deflect around 0.50 caliber, causing other materials to puncture.
"Size" of Aluminum foil:
The thickness of the Aluminum sheet is from 0.008 inches to less than 0.25 inches. Aluminum foil less than 0.008 inches thicker than foil, and Aluminum foil thicker than 0.25 inches thicker than Aluminum foil.
Aluminum foil is used for strong tanks in parts of the industry because some aluminum alloys withstand extremely cold temperatures.
The production of Aluminum foil is usually the same as the plate method, but the foil is alternately twisted through the machine to reduce its thickness in the coil at the end of the line. These coils are repeatedly twisted and passed through several rolling machines. The coils may be heated in a furnace to soften them for colder rolls or to produce desirable mechanical properties. Cold roll is the last step for some sheets, but other types are exposed to much higher temperatures to increase strength.
Aluminum foil is the most widely used industrial type of this metal, which is used in cases such as aerospace (aircraft shell), transportation (car body sheet), packaging (objects and ends of cans), and construction (building facade). Be.
It is also commonly used for lightweight construction, truck and trailer repairs, car body panels, enclosures, machinery, and a wide range of applications in construction, aerospace, and defense. In packaging, Aluminum foil is used to produce cans and packages.
In transportation, Aluminum foil is used to make panels for car bodies, trailers, and tractors. Aluminum foil is also used in home appliances and cooking utensils. Used in construction for items such as gutters, roofs, canopies. Aluminum foil can be painted from black to gold, red, blue, and hundreds of other colors.
Ribbed aluminum foil and its applications
Ribbed Aluminum foil is one of the most widely used examples of Aluminum sheets. Due to the shapes and roughness of the surface of these sheets, they are called ribbed. The presence of these treads increases their resistance and friction, especially against slipping. The thickness of this sheet, depending on its use, is between 1.5 to 10 mm and therefore easily takes the desired shape.
Ribbed Aluminum foil has many applications, including in the construction of guardrails for military centers and prisons, bus stations, truck and pickup truck floors, interior decoration, flooring, stairs, elevator bodies.
Doormat Aluminum foil and its uses
Another type of Aluminum foil is the doormat. As mentioned, due to the anti-corrosion and anti-rot properties of this metal, this type is mostly used for bathroom doors in homes, hotels, swimming pools, etc. Also to prevent decay of wooden doors of bathrooms and toilets and in general doors that are exposed to moisture and are installed behind them. Hence, these are also called behind-the-door Aluminum sheets. Another feature of this type is that it prevents environmental pollution and is easy to clean and washable.