What is copper and its facts?
Copper is a relatively red metal that has a very high electrical and thermal conductivity (among pure metals, only silver has a higher electrical conductivity at room temperature than copper) because Copper artifacts discovered date back to 8700 years ago. Copper is probably the oldest metal used by humans. In addition to being present in various minerals, Copper is also found in metallic form.
According to US Geological Survey, Copper is the third most widely used industrial metal in the world after iron and aluminum. About three-quarters of this metal goes to make electrical wires, communication cables, and electronics.
About two-thirds of the earth's Copper is found in igneous rocks, and about a quarter occurs in sedimentary rocks. This metal is flexible and flexible and conducts heat and electricity well, which is why it is widely used in electronics and wiring.
The Copper is commonly found in nature along with sulfur. Generally, it is produced from a multi-stage process that starts from mining and concentrate of low-value Copper ore sulfide ore and after melting and electrolytic purification produces pure Copper cathode. Increasing the share of Copper in acid washing of metal oxide metal is obtained.
Due to its characteristics such as singularity or composition, wired, malleable, thermal conductivity, and rust resistance, Copper has become one of the main industrial metals in terms of consumption after iron and aluminum in the ranking 3. Electrical applications of copper, such as power generation and transmission, building wiring, communications, electrical and electronic products, account for approximately three-quarters of total Copper consumption.
Architecture is the largest unipolar market after electrical and electronic products, transportation, industrial machinery, and consumer and main products. Copper by-products are easily recycled from unused Copper products and products and significantly join the Copper supply.
The cathode mesh is generally converted into different shapes based on the intermediate casting process such as slabs, billets, sheets, wires, and Copper rods, pipes, and Copper alloys.
What are the uses of copper metal?
Electrical uses of copper
The electricity industry is one of the largest consumers of Copper because it is the best cheap metal for electricity transmission, and also has a special standard compared to other transmitters. In addition, the exceptional strength of Copper metal, its flexibility, and its resistance to wear and corrosion make it the preferred and safest conductor for wire construction.
Copper is also used in power cables, insulated or uninsulated, for low, medium, or high voltage applications. This metal is a major component of efficient motors and converters.
Copper in Electronics and Communications
Wires: The use of copper, which is an excellent conductor of electricity, is used in wires. These wires can end up in home appliances such as toasters or microwaves, as well as appliances such as washing machines and refrigerators. It is also used in home electrical wiring as well as wire in electronic toys such as action figures and remote control cars.
The use of fiber optics in mainstream communication lines has led to a revolution in the telecommunications industry. Despite the exclusion of Copper in part of the distribution system, the need for Copper has increased in wire-connected communities. This metal is still a good transmitter for the end sections of the transmission path. Also, internal sharing lines, local area networks, personal computers, and other hardware all require Copper and its alloys, especially connectors.
(Digital Sharing Line Technology) allows Copper infrastructure and existing conventional telephone wires to transmit information at high speeds. For Internet users, this technology means connecting to 1.5 bits per second instead of 56,000 bits per second.
Semiconductor makers have recently introduced a controversial Copper chip. Using this metal in the circuit of silicon chips, microprocessors find the ability to operate at higher speeds with less energy.
Building and mansion
Copper is used in the construction of buildings. Primarily used in plumbing and roofing. It can also be used in window frames, doors, and doors. To transfer heat to the interior of the building, even the length of the metal can be embedded in the ground. This is an environmentally conscious way to heat a building. It is mainly used in these methods because it is light and durable. It is also fully recyclable, so damaged buildings can reuse their metal in later construction.
In addition to their attractiveness to harsh weather conditions, Copper roofs are very popular. In most public buildings, commercial buildings, and homes, this metal is used for rainwater resistance and roofing.
The glossy green color of the copper, which imparts a classic look of warmth and beauty to the copper, is the result of the natural climate. Copper water supply and heating systems are a hallmark of valuable safety in buildings.
Copper and brass are materials used in plumbing, faucets, valves, and household appliances. Unlike plastic pipes, this metal does not burn, melt or release toxic or harmful gases in the event of a fire. Copper pipes also protect water supply systems against deadly bacteria such as Legionella.
The use of Copper handles and plates ensures the use of the biological properties of Copper and prevents the transmission of disease and germs.
Has copper side effect on the body and used as a medicine?
The antimicrobial properties of Copper make it a popular metal in medicine. Several hospitals have tested by covering covered surfaces such as bed rails and buttons with metal alloys to slow hospital-acquired infections. "Th e metal kills microbes by interfering with the electrical charge of cell membranes," said Cassandra Salgado, a professor of infectious diseases and epidemiologist at the University of South Carolina Medical University.
Bone infections, which are usually caused by fractures, deep wounds, severe tooth decay, and the like, can lead to amputations and even death in serious cases, according to Sputnik. This type of infection is very difficult to treat. Researchers in Ireland have developed an implant that is surgically inserted at the site of a bone infection that simultaneously improves blood flow and bone growth and kills bacteria.
This implant is made from a combination of collagen and bone repair materials called bioactive glass impregnated with Copper particles. This tool has a porous folded structure that both absorbs blood vessels and provides a good space for bone cells to accumulate. The Copper ions in this implant kill the infecting bacteria. In the initial tests, the implant reduced the population of Staphylococcus aurous by 60% and increased bone growth by 3.6 times.
The new implant allows researchers to develop a one-step treatment for bone infection without the need for antibiotics, according to researchers.
What are the types of copper and its alloys?
1- Pure copper: which contains 99.3% or more copper.
2 - Alloys with a high percentage of copper: have a percentage of Copper between 96% to 99.3% and to achieve special properties, silver may be added.
3- Brass: It has zinc as the main alloying element, also other elements such as iron, aluminum, nickel, and silicon are added to improve the properties of the alloy. Brass has high corrosion resistance and tensile strength.
Adding lead to brass metal compounds can improve machining properties, as well as reduce tool wear. Adding aluminum, iron, and manganese to rice increases strength, adding silicon improves abrasion resistance.
Classification of brasses
- Alpha brass, with a zinc content of less than 37%. These alloys are ductile and can be cooled.
- Alpha-beta or binary brass contains 37-45% zinc. These alloys have a more limited ductility and are harder and stronger.
Brass metal families:
- CU-Zn alloys
- CU-Zn-Pb alloys (leaded brass)
- Cu-Zn-Sn alloys (tin brass)
4 - Bronzes: have tin as the only alloying element or the main alloying element. Today, bronze refers to Copper alloys whose main alloy element is other than nickel and zinc.
The bronze family includes:
- Cu-Sn-P alloys (phosphor bronzes)
- CU-Sn-Pb-P alloys ((lead phosphor bronze)
- Cu-Al alloys ((aluminum bronze)
- CU-Si alloys ((silicon bronzes)
5 - Other alloy groups
- CU-Ni alloys: As the name implies, the main alloying element is nickel. This group can include other alloying elements or nickel alone.
- CU-Ni-Zn alloys: These alloys are known as nickel silver due to the color of the alloy. This group contains zinc and nickel as the main alloying elements, and other alloying elements may also be added.
Leaded Copper: Lead Copper is a cast Copper alloy that contains 20% or more lead additive. They also contain small amounts of silver but no trace elements or zinc.
6- Special alloys: When alloys contain chemical compounds that do not fall into any of the above groups, they are called special alloys.
Recycling Copper and its benefits and for what it is recycled
About 40% of the annual consumption of alloys of this metal is supplied from recycled Copper materials.
The tensile point of Copper metal alloys is not clearly defined. It is more common than at 0.5% tensile strength, the yield strength of annealed materials is considered as one-third of their tensile strength. Cold working hardening means that the materials become harder and their ductility decreases and the yield strength approaches the tensile strength.
Cold and hot work
Both Copper and its alloys can be cooled and heated. Ductility can be recovered by annealing or accidental annealing during welding or soldering.
The electrical conductivity of this product is in the second place after silver and it is 97%. Due to its lower cost and higher frequency, it is traditionally used as a standard material for electricity transmission applications. Although from a weighted point of view, a large proportion of high voltage power lines now use more aluminum than copper, the conductivity of aluminum is about twice that of copper.
These aluminum alloys have low strength and need to be improved by galvanizing or coating aluminum with high tensile strength steel wires in each layer. Although the addition of other elements improves properties such as strength, it does cause some reduction in electrical conductivity. For example, adding 1% cadmium can increase strength by 50%, but electrical conductivity can be reduced by 15%.
The thermal conductivity of this metal is about twice that of aluminum and 30 times that of stainless steel. Copper is therefore used for applications that require rapid heat transfer, such as kitchen utensils, heat exchangers, car and vehicle radiators, and computer heat storage units, rotating disks, and television sets.
All alloys of this metal have corrosion resistance against water and steam. In most industrial and marine atmospheres, the alloys of this product have corrosion resistance. The metal is resistant to saline solutions, soils, non-oxide minerals, organic acids, and caustic solutions.
Wet ammonia solution, halogens, sulfides, solutions containing ammonia ions, and oxide acids, such as nitric acid, will attack copper. The corrosion resistance of Copper alloys is due to the formation of adhesive films on the surface of the material. These films are relatively impermeable to corrosion, thus protecting the base metal from further attack. Cu-Ni alloys, aluminum brass, and aluminum show excellent corrosion resistance in saltwater.
Copper Market In The Middle East And West Of Asia
The cathode is sent to the foundry unit in the refinery and leaching. This unit consists of two parts, continuous and semi-continuous casting. Among the products of the semi-continuous casting, the sector is slabbed (copper flat ingots) which are produced according to ASTM B5 standard.
Generally, the dimensions of slabs in the form of flat sheets are as follows:
- Length: 7300 mm
- Width: 660 mm
- Thickness: 127 mm
The cathode produced in the refinery and leaching is sent to the casting unit. This unit consists of two parts, continuous and semi-continuous casting. One of the products of the semi-continuous casting sector is billet (copper cylindrical ingot) which is produced according to ASTM B5 standard.
The dimensions of the billet, which is cylindrical or wire, are as follows:
- Length: 7300 mm
- Diameter: 250 mm
The existence of several Copper mines in Iran and the Middle East and its export to other countries has made Iran a supplier of about 3% of the world's Copper reserves. For example, in the first seven months of 1995, about 200 kilograms of Copper ingots were exported to other countries, which is about $ 1,193,376. If you are looking to buy or sell Copper metal, the 20 iron system will be by your side in this field.
Economic efficiency! After the rise in Copper prices, it happened that they preferred aluminum wire to Copper wire. The price of Copper is higher than aluminum, while the equivalent amount of aluminum is 50% more than the area of copper, and this means exactly the economic cost.
But the high price of Copper is not one hundred percent unreasonable. Unlike aluminum - which loses its performance and becomes dangerous when oxidized - Copper does not lose its properties when oxidized and continues to work. Copper is a much safer choice for the electricity industry and of course, it has higher efficiency, high conductivity of Copper makes it possible to use Copper in power plants. Copper also has lower strength, which makes it more conductive.
In general, the main advantage of Copper wire is its strength and flexibility. Ease of flexibility, wiring, and installation. The conductivity in Copper is so high that you need small conductors and because of its physical strength, you will be sure that you have strong and safe connections. Also, the high flexibility of Copper ensures that there is no risk of fracture on copper. The only drawback is that Copper is expensive.
What is a copper ingot and Methods of manufacturing copper ingots
Copper is a metallic element with high ductility and thermal and electrical conductivity properties. Pure Copper is soft and malleable. Part of it in the open air is reddish-orange.
Copper and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In ancient Rome, Copper mines were exploited in Cyprus. The Latin name for Copper is derived from the word сyprium, meaning metal of Cyprus, which was later abbreviated to Cuprum is coming. Copper compounds are commonly found in the form of Copper (II) salts; the blue or green color of minerals such as azurite and turquoise, which were once considered gems, is due to this metal. Copper is also used in building architecture and decorative arts.
Copper is an essential mineral for living organs because it plays a key role in the production of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase C. The blood of mollusks and crustaceans is made from a substance called hemocyanin. The main ingredient in hemocyanin is copper, while the blood of fish and vertebrates contains hemoglobin, and the main ingredient is iron. The main organs of the human body in which Copper is found are the liver, muscles, and bones.
What are types of Copper ingots?
The molten Copper metal is converted into Copper ingots by casting method and has the following grades:
- 99.99% Copper ingots
- 99.98% Copper ingots
- 99.97% Copper ingots
- 99.96% Copper ingots
- 99.95% Copper ingots
What are defects of Copper ingots?
In Copper ingots that are created by filling from above, when the melt inside the mold cools, a change in volume at the top of the melt causes shrinkage. Which is separated from Copper ingots by machining. Another disadvantage of steel ingots is the cracks that form along the length and surface.