History of the formation of present day Palestine
On November 29, 1947, the UN General Assembly, by a two-thirds majority vote, approved the United Nations General Assembly resolution (Resolution 181 of the UN General Assembly), which seeks to end the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Arab-Jewish Conflict was intended to divide the land of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, and to control most of Jerusalem, which included Bethlehem, by international forces.
Jewish leaders (including the Jewish Agency) accepted the plan, but Palestinian Arab leaders rejected it and refused to negotiate. Neighboring Arab and Muslim countries also opposed the partition plan. After the Arab High Committee declared a riot in Jerusalem in 1947, the Arab community reacted violently and clashed, resulting in the burning of many buildings and shops. As military conflicts between Palestinian and Jewish militias continued in Palestine, British rule over Palestine ended on May 15, 1948, the day before the founding of the State of Israel had been announced (see The Establishment of the State of Israel).
Arab neighbors and their armies (Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Jordan, Jihad Army, Arab Liberation Army, and local Arabs) invaded the country shortly after Israel declared independence, followed by the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. As a result, the plan to divide Palestine never materialized.
What is the term of Palestine?
Since the 1960s, the term "Palestine" has been used interchangeably in political contexts. Various declarations, such as the declaration of an independent Palestinian state in 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization, referred to a country called Palestine, and defined its borders with varying degrees of clarity, including calling for the annexation of the whole of Israel to Palestine.
Most recently, a draft of the Palestinian constitution based on the West Bank and Gaza Strip defined the borders of Palestine before 1967 (the Six-Day War). This Green Line (Israel) is designated by the 1949 Interim Firefighting Agreement, and negotiations on defining permanent boundaries have not yet taken place. In addition, since 1994, the Palestinian Authority has taken control of various parts of ancient Palestine.
Demography of Palestine and economy of Gaza Strip
According to Palestinian statistics, more than 4.2 million Palestinians live on the West Bank. According to a survey presented at the Sixth Herzliya Conference on Israel's National Security Level, there are 4.1 million Palestinians. According to Palestinian statistics, there are more than 1.2 million Palestinians in the Gaza Strip . Palestine, as an old state in the Middle East, although suffering from occupation, still has its economy and economic institutions. Palestine's gross domestic product, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip , is $ 8 billion. In this respect, Palestine is ranked 157th in the world.
Its economic growth is about 6 percent, which seems appropriate for a war-torn country. Of course, a large volume of this GDP and growth is related to the western territories of Palestine, and the Gaza Strip has less of a role in these figures.
The economy of the Gaza Strip
The economic output of the Gaza Strip fell by a third between 1992 and 1996. This fall has been attributed to the closure of the Gaza Strip borders by the Zionist regime and the exercise of extensive border control in response to terrorism in Palestine. As a result of the Palestinian attacks on the occupying Zionist regime, the commodity market relations that had previously been established between this regime and the Gaza Strip were disrupted. The most negative social impact of this fall has been the rise of rising unemployment.
In the following years, the Zionists' appeal to the policy of closing the borders of the Gaza Strip diminished, and in 1998, the regime implemented new policies to reduce the impact of border closures and other security measures on the entry of Palestinian goods and labor into the Zionist regime. These changes led to a three-year recovery in the Gaza Strip economy. The period of economic recovery ended in the last quarter of 2000 with the beginning of the Al-Aqsa Intifada.
The Al-Aqsa Intifada led to the closure of the Zionist regime's border by the regime's military forces, as well as the repeated imposition of restrictions on Palestinian movement in the Autonomous Region, severely disrupting trade and labor movements.
In 2001, and even more severely in 2002, international unrest and military action by the occupying regime in areas controlled by the Palestinian Authority led to the destruction of the capital and executive structure, widespread disruption of trade, and a sharp decline in gross domestic product.
Another major factor in the decline in income was the decline in the number of Gaza residents allowed to enter the occupied territories. After Israel withdrew from the Gaza Strip , a limited number of Palestinian workers returned to the occupied territories, but after Hamas won the Palestinian parliamentary elections in 2006, it was announced that Palestine intended to restrict their work permits or not at all. According to the CIA World Book, the Gaza Strip 's gross domestic product in 2001 saw a 35 percent drop in per capita income to $ 625 a year, and 60 percent of the Gaza Strip 's population now lives below the poverty line.
The Gaza Strip industry is often made up of family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive wood carvings, and pearl oyster souvenirs.
Exports and agricultural products
Citrus fruits, strawberries, and flowers are the most important exports of the Gaza Strip . The most important agricultural products of the Gaza Strip are olives, citrus fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy products. The main imports of tape are food, consumer goods, and construction materials.
The Gaza Strip is under siege by its two neighbors, Israel and Egypt, and the people of Gaza are not allowed to enter or leave the region. Israel has also blocked Gaza's airspace and water, and Gaza has even lost the ability to legally export and import.
Before the summer of 2005, the Gaza Strip was under official Israeli military occupation, with 7,700 Israelis living in several towns in Gaza. However, de facto control of Gaza remains in the hands of Israel, which controls Gaza's airspace and waters and has the right to enter Gaza at any time. Hamas ousted Palestinian Authority forces from the region in 2007 after the 2007 Gaza war. Gaza remained under Hamas control until 2014 when with the agreement of the Fatah Hamas movement, a patriotic government was appointed to Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah for all of Palestine (including the West Bank and Gaza Strip ). Palestinians in the Gaza Strip are affiliated with the Israeli government in various areas of life, such as water, electricity, and communication technologies.
The Gush Katif area of Israel was formerly located in the Sindh region, adjacent to Rafah and Khan Yunis, along the southwestern coast of 40 km from the Mediterranean Sea. A controversial buffer zone was established on the northern border with Israel a few months after Israel implemented a plan to unilaterally evacuate the Gaza Strip in December 2005. Part of the 2.5-kilometer border penetrates the Palestinian Authority-controlled area, which used to be part of northern Israel, and is now occupied by Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades to fire rockets at Israel. They use.
The Gaza Strip has a temperate climate, with mild, dry winters and hot, dry summers. The surface is flat or flat, and there are dunes along the shore. The highest point is called Abu Awda, which is 105 meters above sea level. Palestine's natural resources include arable land (about one-third of the Gaza Strip is irrigated land). Palestine environmental issues include desertification; Use of saltwater to irrigate agricultural products, freshwater; Wastewater treatment; waterborne diseases; Soil erosion; and the reduction and pollution of groundwater resources. The Gaza Strip is said to be one of the fifteen territories that make up the "cradle of humanity." The area has the oldest remains of large man-made fires and some of the oldest human skeletons.
Shipping the goods
The city of Gaza is located in the rest of the Gaza Strip next to Yasser Arafat International Airport. It reopened in 1998, but is currently out of operation, with gangs and its support facilities largely destroyed by Israeli forces during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Following Israel's withdrawal from the Gaza Strip in the autumn of 2005, there were discussions between the Palestinian and Israeli sides over its reopening. So far, Israeli negotiators have not agreed to allow it to reopen.
Arrival in Gaza and transportation to Palestine
Gaza International Airport, located 40 km south of Gaza. Bengurin International Airport, Tel Aviv, 70 km north of Gaza.
- Access from the north: The Israeli retaining wall of the Gaza Strip is the crossroads (at the border with Israel).
- Access from the south: Rafah intersection at the point (border with Egypt, also known as the Philadelphia Line)
Freight transport in the Palestinian territories is road-based. It is fully privatized; owned and operated by individuals or companies. Freight routes are not fixed or regulated. There is no enforcement of maximum weights. A very high percentage of vehicles are old. By 1998, there were 22000 and 8000 trucks registered in the Palestinian territories.
In 2001, the number of licensed freight vehicles was 23215. In addition, there were approximately 900 vehicles operating in a non-legal freight transport. In 2002, the number of licensed vehicles dropped in the WB; however, increased in GS.
Seaport and Maritime Transportation
Since 1967, the international trade serving the Palestinians areas was done through the seaports of Haifa and Ashdod with restrictions. The Israeli security checks on exported Palestinian products resulted in considerable delays and losses. With the establishment of the PNA, a decision was made to build Gaza Seaport near Gaza City. The construction of the seaport was delayed due to the Israeli obstacles and opposition to constructing the seaport, which were related to security and custom inspection.
The agreed arrangements included establishing procedures for checking, operation, management, and security in the seaport through a joint Sea Port Protocol. The plans for the seaport include the construction of three wharfs, a breakwater, excavation and leveling works, and the necessary facilities and infrastructure.
The depth of water will reach for this stage 10 m, so that 15-25 thousand ton ships can be served. The Palestinian Seaports Authority (SA) was created in 1999 under the umbrella of the Ministry of Transport (MOT). SA has developed a number of plans and developmental programs, an organizational structure, and had prepared the first draft law to regulate aspects of sea transportation.
How is Economy of Palestine?
Economy of Palestine
Following the 2006 legislative election in which Hamas won, Israel handed over $ 55 million in taxes stopped; It does not have access points (port, airport, etc.) to collect taxes, Israel did. These funds make up one-third of the budget. Two-thirds of it is the main budget and support for the salaries of 160,000 civil servants (among whom there are 60,000 security forces and police), a budget that one-third of the Palestinian people are deprived of.
Israel also decided to impose its controls on checkpoints, which since the beginning of the Second Intifada have been a major factor in the 2002-2001 economic crisis, which the World Bank compared to the 1929 economic crisis. In addition, the United States and the European Union have provided direct assistance.
Meanwhile, the United States has blocked the economic activities of banks and obstructing the payment of some auxiliary funds of the Arab League (for example, Saudi Arabia and Qatar) to the accounts. On May 6 and 7, 2006, hundreds of Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank demonstrated to demand payment. With the increase of "economic pressure" on the foundation, tensions between Hamas and Fatah are rising.
Foreign aid and budget deficit
Due to the special situation of the disputed areas, the Palestinian Authority (PA) had received unparalleled financial support from the international community. According to the World Bank, $ 929 million was raised by the international community in 2001. This amount was $ 891 million in 2001 and $ 1,100 million in 2005 (equivalent to 53% of the total budget in 2005).
The main purpose of these grants was budget support, promotion aid, and public health. In 2003, the United States raised $ 224 million, the European Union $ 187 million, the Arab League $ 124 million, Norway $ 53 million, the World Bank $ 50 million, the United Kingdom $ 43 million, Italy $ 40 million, and the remaining $ 170 million were paid by other countries.
According to the World Bank, the budget deficit in 2005 was about $ 800 million, about half of which was provided by sponsors. The report also states that the financial situation of PA. It had become increasingly unstable, largely due to uncontrolled government spending, especially the high growth of government employee payroll, the expansion of public transportation schemes, and the expansion of the credit network.