What role does Travertine play in today's luxury architecture and decoration?
Luxurious buildings with impressive stone facades are among the most beautiful features of the city that dazzle the eyes of every viewer. Among these, Travertine is the best choice for these buildings due to its variety of colors and extraordinary pattern. But to know what Travertine is and get to know more about this beautiful gift of nature to our homes. If its porosity is less and its color is lighter, it is considered as a better quality stone.
The advantages of Travertine stone are good resistance to cold and heat, adhesion to mortar and also very reasonable price. Of course, because the stone is sedimentary, very cold weather can lead to its crushing.
One of the good properties of this stone is its thermal insulation and sound insulation, which the cavities inside the stone have created this property, and another advantage of the cavities in Travertine is the increase in the strength of the installed stone, which penetrates the cement. Inside these cavities, the adhesion of the rock to the wall increases.
The porosity of the Travertine rock is due to the space occupied by the gases in the hot water, which is a source of sedimentation that prevents the formation of a compacted rock mass.
Travertine in the Middle East
These rocks are leftover from the sediments of hot springs, and the cavities on the rocks are caused by gases trapped in the same hot springs. The variety of colors and patterns on the Travertine stones make them an ideal and wide choice for designing the facades of buildings, walls, and floors of swimming pools, floors, and paving stones. While the amount of porosity and quality of the stones is very diverse, it has left the hands of those interested free to choose.
According to international statistics, the Middle East is among the top 10 countries in terms of the number, variety, and mines of building stone with reserves of decorative stones, and in terms of diversity and uniqueness of stone; we are ranked third in the world after China and India. According to the same statistics, Iran has gained about 8% of world production in the past few years with an annual production of about 10 to 15 million tons of decorative stones as the fourth-largest producer of decorative and facade stones in the world.
The known capacity of Travertine mines in the Middle East is estimated at 60 billion tons, of which 47 billion tons are located in Iran and the extraction capacity of this mineral is more than 25 million tons per year.
The existence of rich reserves of stone facade and decoration has made the Middle East one of the top producers of Travertine in the world and due to the strategic position of the Middle East, there is a privileged position for this valuable mineral product to use properly in the world target markets.
More than 75% of the Middle East facade stone, mainly travertine, is extracted and processed from Iranian mines, which is unique in terms of quality. The country has 12,000 mines as the center of stone production in the Middle East, of which 4,500 are active in the production of travertine.
Middle Eastern Travertine stone has quality, technical specifications, and special characteristics that are different from stone from other parts of the world. For this reason, it has been included in the world geographical registration of goods.
What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Travertine?
Although this stone was known as one of the most luxurious and expensive decorative stones until a few years ago, recently, due to the increase in supply in the market and a significant decrease in price and high variety, it has found a wider place among homes and families and even it is used as an alternative to paving the floor of the courtyard, wall covering and flooring of ceremonial halls and swimming pools, and even as a staircase, etc.
Especially since Travertine is the best choice for environments with hot climates and its reasonable price for its long life, attracts every buyer.
Travertine vs Marble
It can be said that it is a stone between marble and lime found in abundance near hot springs, especially limestone caves. The large cavities in the texture of this rock, as mentioned, are caused by gases trapped in hot water and make the surface of the rock, not polished and slippery, and a good choice for the floor of places that experience high humidity.
This is exactly the reason why Travertine is used in pool floors. At the same time, these pores, in addition to being functional, have added extra beauty to the stone.
The texture of Travertine is such that its outer surface remains cool despite the high temperature of the environment and for this reason, it is the best choice for the floor and walls of swimming pools.
Travertine stones are usually available in ivory white or completely white and caramel. More common colors are naturally more economical as well, while stones with rarer colors are often much more expensive.
White and light colors have the highest distribution among other colors of Travertine and therefore, have a lower price than other colors. The color of each stone is due to the salts and elements that are present in the warm waters of the rock.
The lower the number of solutes and elements soluble in these waters, the lighter the color of the stone, and the more elements, the darker and more expensive the stone. There are special and popular colors such as brown, gold, and gray that are sold at very high prices and have their buyers.
Long life and extremely high strength of Travertine stones is another important competitive advantage. Travertine stones often travel long distances to reach their destination, and often do not suffer much damage along the way.
They also have high chemical and thermal resistance and are especially suitable for cold environments at higher thicknesses.
Of course, it should also be borne in mind that Travertine stones are usually vulnerable to constant freezing and thawing, and therefore should not be used in cold spaces and environments to use thin thicknesses of these stones.
History of Travertine Stones
The name of these stones goes back to the source of their identification and introduction; to ancient Rome! The use of Travertine in the second decade of BC by the Romans established this stone as an excellent building material. After the widespread use of Travertine in ancient Rome, the medieval cultural and economic crisis led to the general non-use of decorative stones. It was later in the Art-Gothic period that Travertine was revisited. Between the Renaissance and the Neoclassical era, travertine, like other stone materials, once again came to the attention of architectural designers.
Roman Renaissance architects used Travertine extensively in their designs during the Renaissance. According to the architects, Travertine is an excellent material for the facade of buildings because it can be easily inscribed and cornered. The very pleasant appearance and technical properties of Travertine make it an ideal decorative material for a variety of applications. Travertine, as one of the structural materials or similar materials for beautifying facades, floors and interior decorations, has a lot of flexibility and ductility.
What is Leather Travertine?
The first task is to cut these stones, which can be done in two ways:
- Cutting perpendicular to the lamination (Veincut)
- Crosscut parallel cutting
After this stage, the most important stage is finishing or polishing the stone in stone cutting. The final finish of the surface of Travertine stones can determine its final appearance. Polished or polished Travertine stones, rough Travertine stones, and antique or leather Travertine stones are the result of some measures at this stage.
As the name implies, grinding and polishing the stone increases the gloss and smoothness of its surface. However, in some types of Travertine stones, which are called leather Travertine stones, in addition to removing this step, they also use acid to open the pores of the stone surface and using some wire brushes on the work surface to lose its luster completely.
Uses of Travertine and its Dimensions
This porosity allows the cement slurry to penetrate these spaces and act as a natural scope. Travertine stones can be used on the building facade even in very cold and rainy areas without worrying about dropping stones. In the interior, this stone can also be used for the following users:
- Wall base
- Stone next to the stairs
Travertine stones from the external and internal characteristics in their external form to their specific dimensions can be mentioned. First, you should know the types of dimensions of building stones, and then we will go to the specific dimensions of the stone. The rocks that are first extracted are raw and no special processing and work have been done to use them.
Well, this stone, which has just been extracted from the heart of different mines, is raw, and the dimensions of this raw stone are called cups or slates. After cutting, which is a completely raw stone without cutting and processing, it is slab stone, which is the result of cutting stones in the dimensions of the cutting, but with a much less thickness than the cup. Tile stones are those that are smaller than slab stones and are less thick. One of the characteristics of tile stones is the ease of transportation compared to the dimensions of previous stones.
How is travertine formed?
Travertine is a limestone that is formed by the activity of hot springs. In general, during the process of forming Travertine deposits, hot water passes through the layers of carbonate rocks, especially limestone, and due to its acidity, dissolves the calcium carbonate in these rocks and forms it as a carbonate and bicarbonate solution when they move themselves to the ground.
On the surface, due to the pressure drop, the decrease in the heat of carbon dioxide release as well as evaporation, calcite crystals are formed and deposited in thin layers on top of each other. The stability of the mentioned conditions and the continuation of the formation of calcite layers, causes the formation of uniform layers of porous calcium carbonate (travertine) whose thickness varies from a few centimeters to several meters and usually with a gentle slope on the old rock layers.
Changing the deposition conditions can cause an interruption in the formation of these layers, which results in a separation surface between successive layers of travertine. The total thickness of Travertine layers usually varies from a few meters to several tens of meters.
The presence of air hub bubbles as well as impurities of divalent iron, trivalent iron, manganese, silica, organic matter, etc. cause considerable color variation in Travertine reserves in white, milky, cream to beige, pink, brown , Gold, yellow, lemon, red and green can be formed. In addition to the variety of colors that create a special beauty in these types, this type of stone can be cut from two different directions.