What is cement?
Cement is a material that has the ability to stick sand particles to each other and is one of the most widely used materials in the construction industry by creating a solid and integrated body of particles as well as making concrete or mortar.
Cement is made of a combination of calcareous materials, clay, silica and mineral oxides at a temperature of 1400 to 1500 degrees Celsius. Cement is a chemical product that hardens in combination with water and the resulting product is durable and resistant to moisture.
Cement is one of the most widely used materials in road and dam construction and generally in construction field. Cement usually is used as an adhesive mortar in all stages of construction works.
What are the types of cement and what are they used for?
Portland Cement type 1
is the same as ordinary Cement which is available in white or gray. The white one is used in making concrete counterparts because in spite of its high price it has precise color consistency.
Portland Cement type 2
is also known as modified cement. Modified Cement can be used in mass and hot weather concreting. In fact, this type is the most widely used type of cement, because it has many applications in building foundation, walling (brick, clay, block, etc.), tiling and many others. This type of Cement is also used in the construction of Cement blocks, curb and various types of utility pole.
Portland Cement type 3
is referred to under other headings such as regulated-set Cement or hardening cement. It is more useful when the exploitation work has to be done earlier.
This Cement is cured quickly in cold weather conditions and the only thing that should be considered while using it is the use of antifreeze.
In Low heat Portland Cement (type 4) by reducing the amount of C3A C3S, the hydration temperature is greatly reduced and it is used in mass concreting. Of course, the production of this type of Cement in the world is low and attempts are made to use alternative cements (such as type 5) instead.
Portland Cement type 4
is known as slow setting cement. This Cement is used in high temperature over 40 degrees, in lower speed concreting and in layers.
Portland Cement type 5
is also known as anti-sulfate cement. Therefore, Portland Cement type 5 is used when the environment of the concrete structure is exposed to severe sulfation.
Grout Cement is composed of water, cement, sand and other additives. Grouting is used to fill empty spaces and large cracks as well as to prevent Cement from being flaky. Grouts are in the form of powder that after mixing with water, they are used as a fluid mortar. Buffer grout is the most widely used type of grout.
White Portland Cement is made like ordinary portland cement, except that its raw materials do not contain iron oxide, so clay should not be used in making it, but in this case, the cost will increase, so the same raw materials in addition to potassium chloride or calcium chloride are used, which is combined with iron oxide in a Cement kiln to give iron chloride, which is a gas that evaporates and then the Cement color turns white. Iron oxide should not consist of more than 0.02% of white Cement total weight.
Different types of Cement will be used in various forms such as concrete, building facades, wall and floor coverings, construction of columns and foundations and also to increase the safety and strength of the structure.
Today, different types of construction cements with different physical, chemical and functional characteristics are available in the consumer markets.
Different types of building Cement in combination with water and the surrounding air will be fully integrated and will create a structure impermeable to water, heat and moisture.
How will be the future of cement industry by 2050?
The middle of the present century will be a year of dramatic change in the fields of population, environment, technology, economy and society. In the meantime, the Cement industry as one of the strategic and effective industries in today's human life will undergo dramatic changes. A look at these possible developments can show new horizons in the eyes of major players and enthusiasts in the field of industry.
The human need for Cement and concrete to create infrastructure and improve living standards has always existed from the past to the present time and will be used as an integral and cost-effective component in the development of the world.
Despite technological advancements around the world, there has always been a human need for things like hospitals, roads, homes, railways, energy (production/ transmission), bridges, shops, sewage, wastewater facilities and other infrastructure, but passing of time will be a way to step in the field of using advanced Cement and concrete and benefit from modern technologies.
Changing the balance of the world's population, such as demographic focus in Africa and Asia as well as shifting economic development from west to east is one of the most important changes in the Cement industry.
Global warming and rising penalties for greenhouse gas emissions, the growth and development of technology in the fields of renewable energy, artificial intelligence and augmented reality, along with the increasing rate of urbanization in the world, are considered as important factors of change in the coming years.
What changes will occur in the cement industry by 2050?
In addition to these issues, the world Cement industry will undergo changes that will ultimately result in reduced energy consumption, reduced clinker use, reduced carbon dioxide emissions and the use of automation systems and information technology, which are as follows:
Increasing the efficiency and crushing level of roller mills used in the Cement industry. Changes in the design and technology of preheaters, pre-calciners, and the use of heat recovery technologies that reduce energy consumption in the clinker production process.
- Changes in the design of the separator, cyclone, fan and burner which will eventually lead to the control of exhaust gases.
- Increasing the role of digital technologies in controlling and troubleshooting of production lines, data analysis and monitoring (Big Data).
- Due to the "digitalization" of the production process, cyber security will become one of the requirements of manufacturing plants.
Automated systems will replace manpower, and the rate of direct employment of workers stationed in production units will decrease.
- Information engineers along with mechanical, chemical and electrical engineers will play a more significant role in the production of high-tech Cement and clinker.
High Tech Cement and Clinker
Advances in the Cement industry will eventually lead to the production of high-tech Cement and clinker, and Cement plants using emerging technologies such as solar/electric heating systems, carbon-absorbing technologies, and carbon-free alternative fuels, recycled materials and optimal crushing technologies can provide cements with higher strength and durability along with cost-effective production.
Growth of cement-based products
Following the change in Cement technology, the production of cement-based products will also increase and the concrete industry with the production of new products such as lightweight concrete, self-healing concrete, permeable concrete, thermal insulation concrete, light-transmitting concrete, transparent concrete, Carbon-absorbent concrete and electric storage concrete will definitely experience a new era.
Overcapacity in world Cement production
Factors such as overcapacity in a number of countries in the field of Cement industry, demographic changes, including an increase in the elderly population in the coming years, changing the situation of developing and developed countries indicate that the demand for Cement by the middle of the present century will face a reduction of 30 to 60 percent.
With the development of many developing countries, projects around the world will move towards modernization and reconstruction.
In the meantime, considering the possible conditions, a number of Cement factories in the world will disappear in history or will have to change their application.
The world's top cement producers
Partial growth of Cement increased from 4050 million tons in 2018 to 4100 million tons in 2019. China's Cement production rate in 2019 was 2200 million tons, unchanged from the previous year. Thus, China kept the first place in the production of Cement in the world. After that, India, with a significant difference from China, due to the production of 320 million tons of Cement (growth of 20 million tons compared to 2018) continued to be in the place of second largest producer of this product in the world.
Vietnam was the third largest producer of Cement in the world in 2019, with manufacturing of 95 million of total world cement.
Meanwhile, the production of this country in 2018 was 90.200 million tons. During 2019, the United States ranked fourth in the world with 89 million tons of Cement production.
In addition, Egypt, with a production of 76 million tons, and Indonesia with a production of 74 million tons of cement, despite the decrease in production compared to 2018, were ranked fifth and sixth in the production of Cement last year, respectively.
The amount of Cement production was 81.200 million tons in Egypt and 75.200 million tons in Indonesia in 2018.
The rate of Cement production in Iran increased from 58 million tons in 2018 to 60 million tons in 2019. This growth of production in Iran and the simultaneous decline in production of this product in Turkey led to the promotion of Iran to the seventh place in the world.
Heretofore, Turkey was ranked seventh in the world with a production of 72.5 million tons of Cement and Iran was ranked eighth in the world with a production of 58 million tons.
During this period, Russia, as the eighth largest producer of Cement in the world, produced 57 million tons of it. Brazil and the Republic of Korea each ranked ninth in the world with 55 million tons of this product. In addition, Cement production in Japan, as the tenth largest producer in 2019, was 54 million tons, which is experienced a decrease compared to the previous year (55.300 million tons).
In 2019, Turkey faced a dramatic drop in Cement production from 72.500 million tons to 51 million tons, which led to a decline in the global ranking of the country from seventh to eleventh.
Loading cement for consumption and cement warehouse
The transfer of Cement from factory to the place of consumption is done in two ways:
The bagged Cement is in standard bags which will be shipped to the consumption markets. The Cement trademark of the factory, the name of the manufacturer, the type of cement, the weight of the bag and the date of production must be written in a special color for each type of cement.
Bulk Cement is loaded by especial Cement transporting machine under the silo. Cement is loaded in the loading house and delivered to the customer. Cement is provided to the consumer in two general forms, bulk and bagged. In the bulk model, the Cement transport bunker discharges the Cement powder at the warehouse and the Cement is no longer packaged, which is called the bulk model.
Special equipment is used for bulk Cement storage. Bulk Cement storage in silos is done with a special measuring mechanism by which a suitable amount of Cement enters the concrete machine.
Cleanliness of the warehouse environment and related devices is essential. Moving parts of the silo should be cleaned of Cement coating and the hopper should be cleaned daily so that these wastes do not pose a problem to measure the actual size of the cement.
Which Storage cautions must be taken?
Special conditions are required for Cement storage. Cement should be stored dry in the warehouse because Cement reacts with water and humid weather can damage it. If the Cement is stored in conditions without water and moisture, it can be stored for a longer period of time. The time of storing bulk Cement in the warehouse also reaches three months in favorable conditions.
However, after 4 to 6 weeks after storage and maintenance of cement, about 20% of the strength of Cement is reduced, even if stored in suitable conditions. But if stored in a relatively humid environment, this moisture causes weathering of the cement.
The method of storing Cement in the warehouse depends on the warehouse environment. Outdoor and indoor Cement storage are different. When storing Cement bags, care must be taken in order not to tear the Cement bags. Also, bagged Cement should be free of lumps because it indicates weathering in the Cement bag.
Of course, if there are lumps, they should be easily crushed by the pressure of your fist; otherwise you should not use this Cement for structural concrete.
Cement bags should be 10 cm away from the ground and at least 10 cm away from the wall. Stacked bags should not exceed 10 bags. Do not use stored bulk Cement unless stored in a silo equipped with a drying blower.
Where is the first destination of Middle East cement exports?
India is first destination of Middle East Cement exports. In the first 5 months of this year, more than 5,847,201 tons of Cement have been exported from one of the major producing countries in the Middle East, the value of which reaches $127,990,959.
The Middle East is currently one of the seven largest Cement producers in the world. According to experts, disproportion in the supply of production inputs, surplus supply and disproportion of demand due to the increase in Cement plants, the emergence of Covid-19 and its consequences and issues related to transportation are among the challenges facing the Cement industry.
Cement produced in the Middle East has been exported to India, Afghanistan, Russia, Iraq, Qatar, Kenya, Kuwait, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Oman and others.
Iraq with $24,742,598 is the first importer, Kuwait with $23,375,870 and Afghanistan with $19,540,437 are the next highest importers of Cement in the Middle East.