What is plaster and where you can find it?
plaster is an abundant mineral that has been formed as a sedimentary layer for millions of years due to the evaporation of saline lakes and shallow seas. Raw Plaster is mineral calcium sulfate which has two formulas.
- Formula 1 - hydrated CASO4.2H2O
- Formula 2 - without water CASO4
There are two main sources of Plaster in nature, one is sediments left around the coast at sea and the other is raw Plaster mines, which are usually the result of severe leaching of sedimentary substrates.
History of using plaster in different areas
Evidence shows that some of gypsum works antiquity left on the Anatolian Plateau and Syria, date back to 9000 years ago. It has also been proven that the Sumerian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilizations that ruled in the adjacent areas certainly interacted with each other and used Plaster as a building material.
The most popular and important cases of using gypsum in that period were making special kinds of charms and sculptures. In ancient civilizations, a kind of Plaster was used which is called Alabaster. The large statues of winged cows belonging to the Assyrian civilization, which are made of gypsum are now available in London.
In the United States, Pennsylvania was the first state to use Plaster extensively to improve soil conditions. In the beginning, adding Plaster to oats at a rate of 210 to 550 kg /per hectare has significantly increased the efficacy. Plaster lightens the soil, increases soil permeability and drainage, increases plant resistance to stress, especially drought.
Adding raw Plaster causes soil stability and sustainable agriculture development, especially in very Impressive soil and water conditions of pistachio-prone areas. In the United States, about 30 different types of fertilizer products (plaster base) are extracted from raw Plaster under different names, and each has its own unique application.
Plaster (or gypsum) is used in the construction and many other industries, but the main use of gypsum is in the construction industry. In the following, we will examine the uses of Plaster in variety of industries and briefly explain each of them.
What are the most important uses of plaster in different industries and agriculture?
According to above mentioned materials, Plaster or gypsum is mainly used in construction industry mostly as a wall coating or for plastering artworks, but this useful material is also applicable in many industries such as agriculture, fertilizer, medicine, pharmaceutical, petrochemical, leather, glass, paper industries and so on.
The use of raw Plaster has an almost long history in agriculture and since 1768, i.e. about 250 years ago, Plaster has been used to improve the soil. The use of Plaster in agriculture has been popular in Europe since the 18th century on many crops, including grapes and apples.
Surprisingly, with all these extensive resources of raw Plaster it`s use in some highly saline and alkaline pistachio garden and pistachio-prone areas is very low and even very insignificant. A substance that can work miracle in pistachio garden, of course, if used properly.
Another advantage of using raw gypsum in pistachio gardens is the reduction of salinity and its modification in the rhizosphere of the roots of pistachio trees, and another advantage is the acidification of highly alkaline soil in pistachio prone areas.
Ca and S Calcium and sulfur in raw gypsum meet the needs of pistachio trees for these two elements. The presence of a rich source of calcium in the subsoil or surface soil in pistachio gardens increases the soil acidity and reduces Al poisoning in it.
Removable and very light Plaster particles in the soil will greatly help to improve it`s properties. Calcium ions in the soil will increase light soil particles and also soil conditioning and lightening. On the other hand, SO4 sulfate ions will increase the absorption of fixed and non-absorbable ions for trees.
According to many theories of plant nutritionists, calcium and sulfur are one of the most consumed elements, and in this regard, adding calcium and sulfur to the soil will meet the needs of trees for these vital elements.
Applications of Plaster in agriculture are generally in the following cases:
- Preparation of chemical fertilizers
- Soil conditioner
- Preparation of chemical toxins
- Absorption of the soil moisture
- Improve soil structure and soften clay soils
- Supply of calcium required by plants
- Neutralization of sodium in alkaline soils
- Clarify the water of muddy ponds
- Activate microscopic creatures
- Supply of sulfur required by plants
What is the use of plaster in the construction industry?
The main consumption of Plaster is in construction industry. Plaster is used in the building in two forms: clay Plaster and whitewashing plaster. Composite plasters, like Gipton plaster, are used for plastering concrete surfaces.
Applications of gypsum in the construction industry include: surface coating, whitewashing, cleaning, polishing, plastering, gypsum mortar, thermal and acoustic insulation, prefabricated roof and floor sheets, sculpture, drywall, decor, Gypsum tile and so on.
Gypsum is also used in cement industry. One of the most important uses of gypsum is in Portland cement industries. In the cement industry, gypsum is used as a material to create more adhesion in cement. The use of gypsum in the cement industry is in the form of raw gypsum (pure gypsum extracted from the mine) with specific aggregate.
Other gypsum applications in variety of industries:
In food industry:
Plaster is used as a rich source of calcium for the body, as a filter helper in production of sugar, in beverage production to increase purity and regulate water hardness.
In porcelain and ceramic:
plaster also used in porcelain and ceramic industries to make a variety of molds.
In the glass industry:
In the glass industry, gypsum is used to regulate the melt viscosity and also as a Substitute for sodium sulfate.
In the casting industry:
Refractory Plaster is used as a casting mold
plaster in mining:
Plaster is useful for blocking small mining tunnels.
plaster in medicine :
Another use of Plaster will be in the healthcare industry and the production of dental plaster. There are different types of dental Plaster depending on the type of application. But in any case, dental Plaster must be made of a completely "pure" ore, because having some impurities after production and during application process is harmful to the mouth.
Other uses of Plaster in medicine are:
production of medical bandages, dental molds, bone fracture plasters, preparation of oral tablets and so on.
In the pharmaceutical industry:
In the pharmaceutical industry, gypsum is used as fillers and calcium-containing materials to make a variety of tablets.
In health products and massage service centers:
Gypsum produce heat and open skin pores
In the paper and paint industry:
Gypsum is used for paper transparency and also as a filler
plaster in the petrochemical industry:
in petrochemical industry Plaster act as a dryer
The use of Plaster in the leather industry:
The use of Plaster in the procurement of chemicals
Chemical fertilizer industry:
Application of gypsum in leather industry:
As a horn separator from the leather:
In the preparation of chemicals:
Such as sulfuric acid, calcium oxide, ammonium sulfate, double sodium sulfate and so on.
Chemical fertilizer production industry:
Sulfur fertilizer is one of the fertilizers commonly used in agriculture to improve the soil. Due to its chemical properties, Plaster is one of the raw materials used in the production of some types of chemical fertilizers.
Sulfur deficiency is observed in soils that are highly exposed to leaching. In this case, sulfur should be added to the soil as a fertilizer.
Other gypsum applications:
- Desulfurization of waste gases
- purification of wastewater containing dyes
- Match tip
- Polishing car`s windscreens