What is sand and where does it come from?
Sand is produced by crushing rocks. Coarse stones are produced from the crushing and separation of natural stones, and finer sands, in addition to stones, also contain shells and corals. In civil engineering, aggregates smaller than 75 mm and coarser than 4.75 are called sand. Sands are divided into two categories according to the source and type of grains used in construction.
Sand is the main part of concrete. Considering the resistance of concrete buildings against atmospheric factors and its longer life compared to metal and brick buildings; Also, due to the possibility of quick, cheap and easy procurement of materials that are used to build concrete buildings, which is the main part of sand, there is room for more studies on sand.
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What is the annual consumption of sand?
The total annual consumption of sand in the world is approximately 53 billion tons, if we consider this figure for people on the planet, each person uses 20 kilograms of sand daily. Due to the rapid growth of urbanization as well as economic growth in East Asia, the demand for buying sand has increased, so that since the beginning of 2000, China has used more sand than America every three years, and this amount of use is more than the entire century. It was the twentieth century.
There is no control over it despite the mining activities becoming bigger and turning commodities into a commercial commodity with a large volume. According to the report of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in 2014, the consumption of sand is estimated between 47 and 59 billion tons, which is based on the statement of the representative of this organization. We can tell from the cement consumption to the sand used. Each ton of cement requires 6 to 7 times the amount of sand production.
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Where is sand used?
Most of the coarse aggregates have fine materials, such as clay or dust from the stone crushing process, with a rough texture. The presence of fine materials on the sand reduces its efficiency. In order to produce quality and clean sand, it is washed through a careful process to remove the fine materials on the sand. The sand resulting from this process is called washed sand. Due to the smoother and cleaner surface, washed sands increase the adhesion in the cement mixture, hence they improve the quality and are highly popular.
- The first and most important is the production of concrete and concrete derivatives.
- A unique type of sand is used in making glass.
- Sand is used as a mold for metal casting.
- Granulation of sand on the floor of the building is used to prevent moisture.
- Another application of sand is in porcelain bricks, walls, etc.
- Other uses can be called mosaic and tile installation.
- Sand is used for the foundation of buildings that are more than two stories high.
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Sand is formed by the erosion or breaking of pebbles and the weathering of rocks. These stones are carried by seas or rivers. Freezing of water inside rock cavities during winter creates sand. Sometimes sand on beaches can also be made up of small broken pieces of coral, bones and shells that are broken up by predators and then beaten up by the sea.
The sands and sands from this section are directed to the three-story sand for separation, and the pea sand, almond sand, overseas sand and broken sand products are separated. And they are taken to the product depot through collection conveyors. Finally, the final product is transported to consumer markets by a loaded loader.
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Types of sand
Natural sand is one of the coarse types of materials that are obtained from the depths of wells and are usually available in red and orange colors. In general, it can be stated that the appearance of these sands has a sharp and angular fracture and is used in concreting.
- Natural sand: Natural sand is extracted from the river bed, alluviums and cones and after being washed, it is used in a variety of ways. Their shape is round and polished.
- Broken sand: These sands are coarse and usually broken. Available in corner form.
- Washed sand: There are large amounts of soil and organic materials among the sands, which affect the efficiency of the sand, for this reason, it is washed and separates the sand from those materials.
- Light-grained sand: Sands such as pumice, tuff, clay, shale, diatomite and volcanic ash, which have low density, are called light-grained sand.
- Ordinary sand: The sand that exists around us naturally is called ordinary sand. This type of sand can be used to make concrete with normal weight.
- Heavy grain sand: grains such as serpentine, magnetite, ilmenite, geotite, limonite and barite are called heavy grain sands, which can be used to make heavy weight concrete.
- Natural sand: This type is naturally extracted from the sea and river bed.
- Washed sand: This type of sand is also called double salt, which is a mixture of sand and soil.
- Broken sand: this type has a sharp appearance and is obtained from the grinding of mineral stones.
- Round sand: As their name suggests, these sands have a round and spherical appearance. They are also artificial sand.
- Angled sand: This sand has high strength and the porosity between them is less than round sand.
- Semi-round sand: These grains do not have a completely round appearance, and some are round and some are angular.
- Mixed sand: this type of sand does not have a special shape.
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