What is Ammonia?
Ammonia, as an inorganic and colorless substance, is very irritating with a pungent and suffocating odor, the usual form of which is liquid. Ammonia is a stable binary hydride and its simplest hydride , a colorless gas with a distinct pungent odor.
In 2013, about 148 million tons of ammonia were produced and marketed. Urea with 55% share is the most consumed ammonia, followed by ammonium nitrate with 10%, nitric acid with 9% and ammonium phosphate with 6%. Ammonium sulfate, ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride, acrylonitrile, caprolactam, hydrogen cyanide and methyl amines are other substances in the ammonia value chain.
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Applications of Ammonia
In the early twentieth century, humans were looking for a way to produce ammonia to increase fertility in their agricultural products. After the discovery of the mass production of ammonia called Haber, 2 billion people in the world were saved from starvation. In contrast, the annual production of 100 million tons of this substance has played a major role in environmental pollution.
Animals' bodies make ammonia from the protein in their food because they need ammonia to neutralize uric acids. This is why it smells like ammonia from a stable where many animals are kept or from a stall.
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History of Ammonia
The ancient Romans used ammonium chloride as money and deposits. They collected ammonium ore from a place called the Temple of Jupiter, or New Libya. But ammonia in the form of ammonia salt was first known by Jabir Ibn Hayyan in the 8th century.
In 1900, Fritz Hobber investigated the ammonia balance at atmospheric pressure and obtained very low concentrations of ammonia (0.012%) at about 1000 ° C. Apart from Haber, Ostward and Nernst also studied the problems of ammonia synthesis separately and more closely; But a number of mistakes occurred during the research process. Ostward, for example, rejected the use of iron as a previously recorded ammonia synthesis catalyst due to an error in the experiment. Haber measurements at different atmospheric pressures indicated that higher pressures should be applied.
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Ammonia production in the Middle East
Due to the natural resources and methane gas in the Middle East, we have been witnessing the production of ammonia in the region for several years. Eight ferrous and non-ferrous catalysts are used to produce ammonia. Currently, ammonia-producing petrochemicals supply the required catalysts from reputable foreign factories. Ammonia production in petrochemical projects seems economically attractive.
On the other hand, it should be noted that there is a direct and reciprocal relationship between urea production and increasing agricultural products. Considering the increase in world population and the consumption of chemical fertilizers in a significant volume, the demand for this product increases annually.
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