What is Phosphoric Acid?
Phosphoric acid, or orthophosphoric acid, is a triprotic acid that is a dense liquid. This acid corrodes and irritates the human mucous membranes, skin and eyes. It is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid that releases flammable hydrogen gas when it comes in contact with metals. Pure phosphoric acid is white solid crystals with a melting point of 42.35 ° C. This acid is boiled at 158 ° C and its components are separated. When phosphoric acid is less concentrated, it is colorless, odorless, and a viscous liquid with a density of 1,685 g / ml (room temperature).
Therefore, being familiar with its history, properties and applications in particular will be essential for technicians and enthusiasts.
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History of phosphoric acid
It is not clear exactly who made phosphoric acid for the first time and when, but historical records date the first invention of phosphorus to German alchemical work. Evidence suggests that Hennig Brand (t), an alchemist and merchant of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries (1730-1730) in Hamburg, Germany, discovered phosphorus in 1669 and, like other alchemists of the time, A brand looking for alchemy, kept his discovery a secret (like the alchemists before him), he tried to make gold using phosphorus (which he certainly did not succeed in). He used a liter of urine to produce about 120 grams of phosphorus!
Shale succeeded in separating phosphorus from bone ash in 1774, and in 1777, by adding nitric acid to phosphorus, he produced phosphoric acid. However, some sources have confirmed that the initial production of phosphoric acid have been in 1694 by Robert Boyle with the dissolution of phosphorus pentoxide in water.
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Phosphoric acid production
Phosphate rocks are generally available in the form of hydroxides and fluorides. Apatite is also the most important phosphate rock that is used to produce industrial and edible phosphoric acid. There are many impurities in this rock that can reduce the efficiency of phosphoric acid. These impurities also cause more corrosion of the materials.
When in 1896 all buffalo bones disappeared from the American plains due to the production of phosphorus, phosphoric acid and other phosphorous products, companies are thinking of replacing bone with a more reliable source, and so they are turning to phosphate mineral ores. But before that, many of them went bankrupt due to rising bone prices. Today, phosphoric acid is prepared from phosphate rocks in two general and dry methods.
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What are the industries that use phosphoric acid?
Oral phosphoric acid is an important ingredient in the production of foodstuffs which is widely used as a flavoring in production of carbonated beverages.
Elimination of rusting
If steel tools are oxidized, phosphoric acid can be used to remove iron rusting and iron can be used in water-soluble phosphates. After solving this problem, the iron phosphate produced is converted to black iron compound, which itself can be a factor to prevent corrosion.
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Phosphoric acid market in the Middle East
The feedstock of phosphoric acid production units in the Middle East is provided by the import of phosphate soils and petrochemicals.
New contracts have been signed for the construction of phosphoric acid plants, but by 2025 these units will not be operational. For example, 250 million euros will be invested in this field by the National Iranian Copper Industrial Company. National Iranian Copper Company will need 1.2 million tons of phosphate soil annually to produce phosphate fertilizer.
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