What is base oil?
Base oil is an oil that is considered as a base for lubricant. The most important component of lubricants in terms of volume is the Base Oil and in terms of weight, on average, more than ninety-five percent of the formulation of a lubricant. Recommended for use in the production of automotive and industrial oils, oils and greases, rubber products, white oils and paraffin oils, etc.
In some lubricants (compressor and hydraulic oils) 99% of the oil is Base Oil and only 1% of it is additives. Base oils can be obtained from petroleum or non-oil sources. Most of the base oils consumed in the world come from refining crude oil. The main constituents of base oils are paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic compounds.
Base oil is the most important element in the formation of lubricants in terms of volume, so announcing that the share of Base Oil in the efficiency of the final lubricant is increasing day by day is not far from reality. In this regard, we can refer to turbine oil, of which more than 99% is base oil.
Modern lubricants are made from a wide range of base liquids and chemical additives. The base liquid has several functions, but is primarily a lubricant, providing a layer of fluid that separates moving surfaces or dissipates heat and coats the particles while minimizing friction. Many lubricating properties are enhanced or created by adding special chemical additives to the base liquid.
Base oils can be obtained from oil or non-oil sources, but most of the world's base oils are made from oil refining. The properties of petroleum-based base oils depend on the type of crude oil and how it is refined. Therefore, oil, like crude oil, consists of various substances and compounds, the main components of which are paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic compounds.
History of base oils
Base oil production technology has gone through several phases of evolution. In the first phase, animal fats were used as lubricants. Inscriptions dating to 1400 BC inform of the use of hard fat of pigs and sheep (called pi) to lubricate the wheels of carriages.
During the next 3,000 years, there was little change in this area, and it can be said that only at certain points, the desired oils were obtained from animals such as whales.
In 1852, crude oil-based oils were introduced. Such oils were not considered at first because they did not perform better than animal-based oils. Therefore, it can be said that crude oil did not produce a good lubricant and in general, the Base Oil industry was not in a good situation due to lack of knowledge.
But as demand for automobiles grew, so did the demand for better lubricants, and it was not long before lubricant manufacturers realized which type of crude oil produced the best lubricants. Then They produced better lubricants by converting crude oil into cuts with lower distillation amplitudes and different viscosities.
Prior to 1920, engine oils were free of additives, and after 1,300 to 1,600 km, vehicle oils were changed. Therefore, in 1923, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) classified engine lubricants as light, medium, and heavy in terms of viscosity. However, due to the needs of the day, more and more lubricant manufacturers began to refine base oils in order to improve their efficiency.
Consumption of base oil
It is one of the most important raw materials for industry and automobiles. This type of oil is the most widely used raw material for industry and constitutes engine oils and industrial lubricants. Base Oil is the name given to first-class lubricating oils. The method of preparation of these oils is first produced by refining crude oil or through chemical synthesis.
This substance can be obtained from oil and non-oil sources, but this substance is produced from oil refineries. Oil in the world for lubrication is increasing day by day. For one of the applications of this type of material, he mentioned turbine oil, more than 99% of it is this oil.
Base oils are used to make products such as lubricants, engine oils and metalworking fluids. Different products require different oils and compounds. One of the most important factors is the viscosity of the liquid at different temperatures. Whether or not the crude oil is suitable for preparation in the Base Oil is determined by the concentration of the Base Oil molecules as well as the ease of extraction.
The Base Oil is produced using crude oil refining. This means that the crude oil is heated in order to heat the possibility of different distillations from each other.
During the heating process, light and heavy hydrocarbons are separated - lighter ones can be refined to make gasoline and other fuels, while heavier ones are suitable for bitumen and base oils.
There are many crude oils around the world that are used to make base oils. The most common is a type of paraffin crude oil, although there are also petroleum oils that produce products with better solubility and excellent properties at low temperatures. Using hydrogenation technology, in which sulfur and aromatics are removed using high-pressure hydrogen, you can obtain very pure base oils, which are suitable in cases where the quality requirements are particularly precise.
Chemicals - Additives - are added to the Base Oil in order to meet the quality needs of the final products in terms of, for example, friction and cleaning properties. Certain types of engine oil contain more than twenty percent additives.
Production of base oils in the Middle East
The production of base oils in the Middle East under international certifications such as ISO 9001, ISO T / S 16969, OHSAS 18001, ISO T / S 29001 and ISO 14001 as well as ISO / IEC 17025 has a production of several million tons per year. Industrial oils, gasoline, diesel, automotive gear oils, motorcycle oils, special and marine engine oils, greases, base products (slack wax, paraffin, extracts and base oils SOC-500), antifreeze - anti-boiling are among our products.
For non-professional motor oil production, mixing several materials with certain percentages in a mixing unit is considered, but the fact is that the process of this growing industry is more complex than that mentioned above. Modification of old standards as needed, with the development of new and appropriate standards to reduce friction and corrosion and optimize fuel consumption of new engines, require excellent formulations and raw materials.
Raw materials play a very decisive role in the production of engine oil, although about 80% by volume of each engine oil is the Base Oil from the initial process. One of the types of base oils is mineral oils.
The Base Oil obtained from the refining of crude oil cutting (lobe cut) alone does not provide lubrication properties in engine oil and various additives play a decisive role in optimizing the required factors.
Engine oil produced with high quality mineral and synthetic Base Oil and its enrichment with additives produced by reputable companies in the world can be considered a suitable reference for relative comparison of the quality of different engine oil products in standard units.