Why is emerald a precious stone?
Emerald is the second most precious stone after diamond in Afghanistan and some parts of the world. Afghanistan Emerald is unique in the world in terms of its transparency. It is the fourth largest exporter of emeralds after countries such as Brazil, Colombia and Zambia. What makes Afghanistan Emerald unusual is its excellent transparency.
Most emeralds, even quality emeralds, have superficial cracks, but Afghan emeralds are usually extraordinarily clean and small in size but of very high quality. Afghanistan's Emerald mines are located in the heart of the Panjshir Valley and the Hindu Kush Mountains, 100 km northeast of Kabul, at an altitude of 3,000 to 4,000 meters. These mines can only be reached on foot. In Panjshir valley, 172 small and large Emerald mines have been discovered so far. The Afghan Emerald mine was first discovered in 1970 by a Russian geologist.
Emerald means green and its name is derived from the Greek word "Smaragdos" which some say is derived from Persian. In the past, all green crystals were called emeralds. The first reference to it in Western literature is from Aristotle.
Where is the most important emerald reserves and mines in the world?
Emerald crystals from Brazilian mines Colombian quality emerald, which has significant amounts of iron, which increases the specific gravity and refractive index of light in this stone. Their guest mineral is in the form of a saw blade. The most important mines of Colombia are Shivore, Gashala Borbar, Casquez and Mozo. In all these mines there is no trace of host minerals that existed before the growth of Emerald crystals.
Emerald crystals from Brazilian mines Colombian quality emerald: which has significant amounts of iron, which increases the specific gravity and refractive index of light in this stone. Their guest mineral is in the form of a saw blade. The most important mines of Colombia are Shivore, Gashala Borbar, Casquez and Mozo. In all these mines there is no trace of host minerals that existed before the growth of Emerald crystals.
Like other minerals in this gemstone, it is formed from molten materials in the ground under hi gh pressure and heat, which can be found in granites, pegmatites (magma residues), schists and deposits. Unlike sapphire or ruby, the importance of Emerald extraction in secondary mines is low and often from primary deposits in grooves, veins and fissures and is done directly from the parent rock containing it.
Today the best types of gemstone are obtained from Colombia. Lower quality varieties with medium to light color tones are obtained from Brazilian mines. Austria, India, Australia, South Africa, Egypt, the United States, Norway and Pakistan also have Emerald mines.
Over the past few decades, the number of quality species in Zimbabwe, Zambia and Tanzania has also increased. Only the types that have the best quality are clean and flawless. Most of them have small joints and indentations from other minerals.
In the north of Russia, most of them are matte or yellow, and their quality type is very rare. Afghanistan's five-lion emeralds with crystal size (many over 100 carats) and good transparency compete with the best varieties found in Colombia that have had no analogues in the last 400 years. Recently, sources of this stone have been observed in Ethiopia. In the following, we will get more acquainted with these mines and explain them.
How to distinguish natural emerald from artificial one?
Emerald stone was produced artificially until 1840, but today it is presented in a synthesized form. It is very difficult to distinguish the natural type from the centered one and it requires a lot of knowledge and experience. The stones that may be offered instead due to similarity are: dementoid, diopside, dioptase, grossular (chromium green garnet).
Synthetic Emerald Types
The first artificial crystal was made in 1848 by A.W. Vernoy was produced in a laboratory, and its production technique has evolved to this day.
Synthetic type of Lenix
These synthesized rocks grow in the form of rectangular crystals and not hexagonal prisms. Their optical refractive index is slightly lower than normal.
Synthesized hydrothermal emerald
Characteristic impurities include feathers of biphasic liquids and microscopic cuneiform crystals and elongated floating growth structures.
Synthesized type of flux
In this method, synthetic emeralds grown in the laboratory are melted and can have impurities such as fingerprints, but in larger dimensions, and also traces of the flux process appear in them.
Synthesized regenerative type
These samples were synthesized using the original Linde method and the carbide union method. They have the same light refractive index as normal, although their specific gravity is slightly lower at 2.68. Their iron content is very low and they have a short wave and strong red fluorescence under the ultraviolet light of a flashlight or purple rays.
What are the differences between emerald and green braille?
A combination of vanadium and chromium produces Emerald color, and the more iron in emerald, the bluer it will be. Today, according to the GIA Emerald Institute of Gemology, green braille has a high degree of color density and a medium or dark tone or darkness, and in terms of color type (Hue), the best color is green and bluish green.
How to improve emeralds?
Due to the high pressure during the formation of emeralds in the ground and difficult extraction conditions, natural emeralds may have many fractures and cracks, which is why from the past until now, to cover the cracks, put it in a liquid like a special oil and improve the emerald.
Emerald lubrication is a global process and about 90% of the emeralds on the market are oiled, but you should note that our Emerald crystals must have surface-breaking fractures in order for oil to enter. When rough Emerald is extracted from the mine, it is thrown into barrels of oil, and this oil facilitates the cutting process.
The color of Emerald is almost constant and does not change in the face of artificial or natural light like the sun and only changes at a temperature of 700 to 800 degrees Celsius. If your Emerald ring loses its beauty and shine as a result of contact with detergents, you should put it in a thin layer of colorless oil. To increase the quality of the paint and prevent light reflection in its cracks, it is usually impregnated with oil or wax, epoxy or plastic.