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Synthetic Chemical Compounds

TRADING CHEMICALS IN THE MIDDLE EAST

Humans probably began to combine these substances before history was recorded

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Which country do you want to trade with?
  • Afghanistan
  • Armenia
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bahrain
  • Egypt
  • Georgia
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Israel
  • Jordan
  • Kuwait
  • Lebanon
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Syria
  • Turkey
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Yemen
Humans probably began to combine these substances before history was recorded
Humans probably began to combine these substances before history was recorded

Humans probably began to combine these substances before history was recorded. We know that humans began combining Metals (copper and tin) about 5,000 years ago to create a flexible metal called bronze. The invention of bronze was an important event, as it made it possible to produce a huge variety of new tools, weapons, and armor. 

It is a bronze alloy (a combination of many metals and other elements) and alloys were used as raw materials in construction and trade. Over the past few hundred years, a combination of different elements has led to the production of stainless steel, light aluminum, foil, and other very useful products. At present, synthetic chemical compounds have also transformed the food industry. 

The combination of different elements has made it possible for humans to prepare cheap and flavorful food and preserve it for a long time by using chemical preservatives. Chemical compounds are also used to create a wide range of edible tissues from crisp to chewy and soft. Synthetic chemical compounds have also had a profound effect on the pharmaceutical industry. 

By combining active and inactive Chemicals in pills, researchers and pharmacists can now produce the drugs needed to treat a variety of disorders.

aluminum (Al), also spelled aluminium, chemical element, a lightweight silvery white metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table. Aluminum is the most abundant metallic element in Earth’s crust and the most widely used nonferrous metal. Because of its chemical activity, aluminum never occurs in the metallic form in nature, but its compounds are present to a greater or lesser extent in almost all rocks, vegetation, and animals. Aluminum is concentrated in the outer 16 km (10 miles) of Earth’s crust, of which it constitutes about 8 percent by weight; it is exceeded in amount only by oxygen and silicon. The name aluminum is derived from the Latin word alumen, used to describe potash alum, or aluminum potassium sulfate, KAl(SO4)2∙12H2O. Aluminum occurs in igneous rocks chiefly as aluminosilicates in feldspars, feldspathoids, and micas; in the soil derived from them as clay; and upon further weathering as bauxite and iron-rich laterite. Bauxite, a mixture of hydrated aluminum oxides, is the principal aluminum ore. Crystalline aluminum oxide (emery, corundum), which occurs in a few igneous rocks, is mined as a natural abrasive or in its finer varieties as rubies and sapphires. Aluminum is present in other gemstones, such as topaz, garnet, and chrysoberyl. Of the many other aluminum minerals, alunite and cryolite have some commercial importance. Before 5000 bce people in Mesopotamia were making fine pottery from a clay that consisted largely of an aluminum compound, and almost 4,000 years ago Egyptians and Babylonians used aluminum compounds in various chemicals and medicines. Pliny refers to alumen, now known as alum, a compound of aluminum widely employed in the ancient and medieval world to fix dyes in textiles. Crude aluminum was isolated (1825) by Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted by reducing aluminum chloride with potassium amalgam. British chemist Sir Humphry Davy had prepared (1809) an iron-aluminum alloy by electrolyzing fused alumina (aluminum oxide) and had already named the element aluminum; the word later was modified to aluminium in England and some other European countries. German chemist Friedrich Wöhler, using potassium metal as the reducing agent, produced aluminum powder (1827) and small globules of the metal (1845), from which he was able to determine some of its properties. The new metal was introduced to the public (1855) at the Paris Exposition at about the time that it became available (in small amounts at great expense) by the sodium reduction of molten aluminum chloride through the Deville process. When electric power became relatively plentiful and cheap, almost simultaneously Charles Martin Hall in the United States and Paul-Louis-Toussaint Héroult in France discovered (1886) the modern method of commercially producing aluminum: electrolysis of purified alumina (Al2O3) dissolved in molten cryolite (Na3AlF6). During the 1960s aluminum moved into first place, ahead of copper, in world production of nonferrous metals. For more specific information about the mining, refining, and production of aluminum, see aluminum processing. Aluminum is added in small amounts to certain metals to improve their properties for specific uses, as in aluminum bronzes and most magnesium-base alloys; or, for aluminum-base alloys, moderate amounts of other metals and silicon are added to aluminum. Pure aluminum (99. 996 percent) is quite soft and weak; commercial aluminum (99 to 99. Ductile and highly malleable, aluminum can be drawn into wire or rolled into thin foil. The metal is only about one-third as dense as iron or copper. Though chemically active, aluminum is nevertheless highly corrosion-resistant, because in air a hard, tough oxide film forms on its surface. Aluminum is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Its thermal conductivity is about one-half that of copper; its electrical conductivity, about two-thirds. All natural aluminum is the stable isotope aluminum-27. Metallic aluminum and its oxide and hydroxide are nontoxic. Aluminum is slowly attacked by most dilute acids and rapidly dissolves in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Concentrated nitric acid, however, can be shipped in aluminum tank cars because it renders the metal passive. Even very pure aluminum is vigorously attacked by alkalies such as sodium and potassium hydroxide to yield hydrogen and the aluminate ion. Because of its great affinity for oxygen, finely divided aluminum, if ignited, will burn in carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide with the formation of aluminum oxide and carbide, but, at temperatures up to red heat, aluminum is inert to sulfur. Aluminum can be detected in concentrations as low as one part per million by means of emission spectroscopy. Aluminum can be quantitatively analyzed as the oxide (formula Al2O3) or as a derivative of the organic nitrogen compound 8-hydroxyquinoline. Ordinarily, aluminum is trivalent. In aluminum the configuration of the three outer electrons is such that in a few compounds (e. , crystalline aluminum fluoride [AlF3] and aluminum chloride [AlCl3]) the bare ion, Al3+, formed by loss of these electrons, is known to occur. The energy required to form the Al3+ ion, however, is very high, and, in the majority of cases, it is energetically more favourable for the aluminum atom to form covalent compounds by way of sp2 hybridization, as boron does. A number of aluminum compounds have important industrial applications. Alumina, which occurs in nature as corundum, is also prepared commercially in large quantities for use in the production of aluminum metal and the manufacture of insulators, spark plugs, and various other products. This form of aluminum oxide, commercially known as activated alumina, is used for drying gases and certain liquids. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), typically produced via the electrochemical oxidation of aluminum, is a nanostructured aluminum-based material with a very unique structure. Another major compound is aluminum sulfate, a colourless salt obtained by the action of sulfuric acid on hydrated aluminum oxide. Aluminum sulfate combines with the sulfates of univalent metals to form hydrated double sulfates called alums. The alums, double salts of formula MAl(SO4)2 ·12H2O (where M is a singly charged cation such as K+), also contain the Al3+ ion; M can be the cation of sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, ammonium, or thallium, and the aluminum may be replaced by a variety of other M3+ ions—e. The most important of such salts is aluminum potassium sulfate, also known as potassium alum or potash alum. The reaction of gaseous chlorine with molten aluminum metal produces aluminum chloride; the latter is the most commonly used catalyst in Friedel-Crafts reactions—i. Hydrated aluminum chloride, commonly known as aluminum chlorohydrate, AlCl3∙H2O, is used as a topical antiperspirant or body deodorant, which acts by constricting the pores. It is one of several aluminum salts employed by the cosmetics industry. Aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is used to waterproof fabrics and to produce a number of other aluminum compounds, including salts called aluminates that contain the AlO−2 group. With hydrogen, aluminum forms aluminum hydride, AlH3, a polymeric solid from which are derived the tetrohydroaluminates (important reducing agents). Lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4), formed by the reaction of aluminum chloride with lithium hydride, is widely used in organic chemistry—e.

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