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Geography, culture, and language of Iraq


 In its southern part, Iraq has a small water border with the Persian Gulf‎ and two famous rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, which are the beginning of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, including the Assyrians and Chaldeans throughout the region's ancient history

Iraq still goes through a state of instability due to the internal sectarian conflicts, the international and territorial power struggles

The geography of Iraq has influenced its cultural and linguistic diversity. The ancient civilizations that flourished in the region contributed to the development of distinct cultural traditions and languages. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which flow through Iraq, have historically provided fertile land for agriculture, shaping the region's economy and settlement patterns. This geographic feature, combined with Iraq's location at the crossroads of different civilizations, has facilitated cultural and linguistic exchange throughout history.

The cultural diversity of Iraq is reflected in its languages. Different ethnic and religious groups have preserved their unique languages and dialects, contributing to the linguistic tapestry of the country. The relationship between language and culture is strong, as language serves as a vehicle for expressing cultural identity, traditions, and values. Iraq, officially known as the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جُمْهُوريَّة العِرَاق, Kurdish: كۆماری فدریلی عێراق, Syriac: ܥܝܪܐܩ) is a country in the Middle east and Southwest Asia. The Iraqi capital is Baghdad. Iraq is bordered by Saudi arabia and Kuwait to the south, Jordan and Syria to the west, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east. 

In its southern part, Iraq has a small water border with the Persian Gulf‎ and two famous rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, which are the beginning of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, including the Assyrians and Chaldeans throughout the region's ancient history. It enters Iraq from Turkey and flows south to it, joining the Karun River, forming the Arvand River, and flowing into the Persian Gulf‎. Iraq covers an area of ​​437,072 square kilometers (58th country in term of area, nearly a quarter of Iran). Most of Iraq is lowland and tropical. The west of Iraq is a desert and the east is a fertile plain, but part of Iraqi Kurdistan (northeast) is mountainous and cold. Iraq is also one of the largest oil-rich countries. The country has 143 billion barrels of proven oil reserves. 

Iraq, with a population of about 40 million, is the 36th most populous country in the world. The language of people is Arabic and Kurdish are the official languages ​​of Iraq. The literacy rate is between 60% and 70%. In addition to Arabic and Kurdish, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Chaldean, Armenian, Assyrian, and other languages ​​are spoken in Iraq. The Muslim population is 69% -64% Shiite and 34% -29% Sunni, as well as several followers of Yazidi, Christian, and Jewish religions live in this country. The country hosts various Islamic occasions such as Ramadan and Eid al-Adha, and the Tasua, Ashura, and Arbaeen Husseini religious ceremonies are held among Iraqi Shiites, who make up more than half of the country's Muslims. 

Iraq has a rich and ancient cultural heritage. It is often referred to as the "cradle of civilization" as it was home to several prominent ancient civilizations, such as the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians. These civilizations made significant contributions to the fields of art, architecture, literature, science, and mathematics. The cultural fabric of Iraq is influenced by its long history of diverse civilizations and the interactions between different ethnic and religious groups.

The official language of Iraq is Arabic, which is spoken by the majority of the population. However, Iraq is also home to several other languages and dialects. Kurdish is widely spoken in the northern regions, particularly by the Kurdish population. Additionally, Turkmen, Assyrian, and Armenian are spoken by their respective communities. English is also understood and spoken by many Iraqis, especially in urban areas and among the educated population.

The land now called Iraq has historically been part of the territory of ancient Iranian empires such as the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sassanids. 160] and was also part of Iran in some post-Islamic Iranian states until the Safavid period; during the Safavid Empire, this land was traded between Iran and the Ottomans; In some parts of Iraq, Iranian festivals such as Nowruz, Shab-e Cheleh, Chaharshanbeh Soori and held every year. Iraq is located in the Middle East, bordered by several countries including Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. Its geography has played a significant role in shaping its history, culture, and interactions with neighboring regions. Iraq is characterized by diverse landscapes, including the fertile plains of Mesopotamia (between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers), marshlands in the south, mountainous regions in the north, and vast deserts in the west.

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