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Types of Cement and its Role in Construction

BUILDING MATERIALS OF THE MIDDLE EAST

Cement is produced in a very soft powder and is provided to the consumer in bulk or in packages

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  • Afghanistan
  • Armenia
  • Azerbaijan
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  • Iraq
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Cement is produced in a very soft powder and is provided to the consumer in bulk or in packages
Cement is produced in a very soft powder and is provided to the consumer in bulk or in packages

Cement is one of the most widely used building materials and is composed of a combination of calcareous materials such as Aluminum oxide and silicon. These Construction materials are produced in a very soft powder and is provided to the consumer in bulk or in packages. 

The combination of Cement with water creates a hard material called concrete, which plays an important role in strengthening various structures. 

Portland Cement: Portland cement is one of the best types of cement that has a special application in construction. This cement has 1 to 5 types, each of which can be used in different places according to the necessary capabilities and functions. 

Colored cement: Colored cement is created by adding pigment to white cement. This cement creates a smooth and even surface, so it is the best option for covering the facade of the building. Colored cement has high mechanical strength and does not crack. 

Refractory cement: Refractory cement resists high temperatures and heat shock, corrosives, sulfates, abrasions, shocks and acidic waters. This cement hardens faster than Portland cement. Cement is the most important material in construction and it is used for various purposes such as prefabricated parts, tunnels and bridges, road construction and concrete production.

There are various types of cement used in concrete construction. Each type of cement has its properties, uses, and advantages based on composition materials used during its manufacture. Ordinary Portland cement is the most widely used type of cement, which is suitable for all general concrete construction. It is the most commonly produced and used type of cement around the world, with annual global production of around 3.   This cement is suitable for all kinds of concrete construction. Portland pozzolana cement is prepared by grinding pozzolanic clinker with Portland cement. It is also produced by adding pozzolana with the addition of gypsum or calcium sulfate or by intimately and uniformly blending Portland cement and fine pozzolana. This cement has a high resistance to various chemical attacks on concrete compared with ordinary portland cement, and thus, it is widely used. Rapid hardening cement attains high strength in the early days; it is used in concrete where formworks are removed at an early stage and are similar to ordinary portland cement (OPC). This cement has increased lime content and contains higher c3s content and finer grinding, which gives higher strength development than OPC at an early stage. The strength of rapid hardening cement at the three days is similar to 7 days strength of OPC with the same water-cement ratio. Thus, the advantage of this cement is that formwork can be removed earlier, which increases the rate of construction and decreases the cost of construction by saving formwork cost. Rapid hardening cement is used in prefabricated concrete construction, road works, etc. The difference between the quick setting cement and rapid hardening cement is that quick-setting cement sets earlier. At the same time, the rate of gain of strength is similar to Ordinary Portland Cement, while quick hardening cement gains strength quickly. Quick setting cement is used where works is to be completed in very short period and for concreting in static or running water. Low heat cement is produced by maintaining the percentage of tricalcium aluminate below 6% by increasing the proportion of C2S. Low heat cement suitable for mass concrete construction like gravity dams, as the low heat of hydration, prevents the cracking of concrete due to heat. This cement has increased power against sulphates and is less reactive and initial setting time is greater than OPC. Sulfate resisting cement is used to reduce the risk of sulfate attack on concrete and thus is used in the construction of foundations where the soil has high sulfate content. This cement has reduced the contents of C3A and C4AF. Sulfate resisting cement is used in construction exposed to severe sulfate action by water and soil in places like canals linings, culverts, retaining walls, siphons, etc. Blast furnace slag cement is obtained by grinding the clinkers with about 60% slag and resembles more or less in properties of Portland cement. High alumina cement is obtained by melting a mixture of bauxite and lime and grinding with the clinker. It is a rapid hardening cement with initial and final setting time of about 3. The compressive strength of this cement is very high and more workable than ordinary portland cement and is used in works where concrete is subjected to high temperatures, frost, and acidic action. It is prepared from raw materials free from Iron oxide and is a type of ordinary portland cement, which is white. It is produced by mixing 5- 10% mineral pigments with ordinary cement. Air entraining cement is produced by adding indigenous air-entraining agents such as resins, glues, sodium salts of sulfates, etc. This type of cement is especially suited to improve the workability with a smaller water-cement ratio and to improve frost resistance of concrete. Expansive cement expands slightly with time and does not shrink during and after the time of hardening. This cement is mainly used for grouting anchor bolts and prestressed concrete ducts. Hydrographic cement is prepared by mixing water-repelling chemicals and has high workability and strength. Hydrophobic cement is mainly used for the construction of water structures such as dams, water tanks, spillways, water retaining structures, etc. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), portland pozzolana cement (PPC), rapid hardening cement, quick-setting cement, low heat cement, sulfates resisting cement, blast furnace slag cement, high alumina cement, white cement, colored cement, air-entraining cement, expansive cement, and hydrographic cement. Ordinary Portland cement is most commonly used type of cement. Ordinary Portland cement is the most widely used type of cement, which is suitable for all general concrete construction.

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