Minerals can be identified by their physical properties, such as hardness, color, appearance (luster) and odor. The most common laboratory method used to identify a mineral is X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction is a technique in which X-ray light is irradiated and observed on a sample and how the light output from the sample bends.
You can identify a Minerals by its appearance and other properties. The definition of a mineral is more limited than you might initially think. For example, the glass is made of sand, which is rich in the mineral quartz. But the glass is not a mineral because it is not crystalline. Instead, glass has a random accumulation of molecules.