In the refinery, various products are obtained from crude oil, and to know how and amount of these products, the Crude oil must first be evaluated in the laboratory. What is obtained in this evaluation will be used to design and adjust the work of the refinery and refining equipment.
The cuts obtained from the distillation of crude oil in the refinery distillation tower may not be usable in the first place as semi-finished products, so each cut depends on how it is and how to improve its quality to other units such as catalytic conversion. Reduction of viscosity, washing with a solvent, and so on are taken to prepare the final products.
In general, crude oil is slightly heated after entering the refinery and then driven to the distillation tower, where it is converted into important oil cuts under atmospheric pressure and vacuum conditions. These incisions have different propositional points. Sometimes some of these sections may be marketed as a final product, but usually, other refining operations must be performed on these first sections, and possibly hydrocarbons must be mixed to obtain the final product.
In refineries, different parts of crude oil are separated and other usable products are introduced into production. According to the International Journal of Oil and Gas, there are over 6,000 Petroleum products, most of which are used in our daily lives, and perhaps few people know about their relationship to oil.
It should be noted that petroleum products are used in all areas of our lives. Plastics and plastic materials are one of these high-consumption products and life is impossible without these products, and making all kinds of car, motorcycle, and bicycle tires is another part of the goods that are produced as a result of oil processing in refineries. Many of the liquids used to clean surfaces these days are petroleum products, and a variety of deodorants and inks are petroleum products.
Petroleum is a liquid distillation product obtained from mineral raw materials such as crude oil and coal. In addition to these paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic constituents, petroleum also includes alkenes, also called olefins, and fluctuating small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen-containing as well as organic compounds. In common parlance, petroleum products are mostly understood to be fossil fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, bunker fuel and heating oil, and lubricants, as this is what petroleum has mostly been used for since industrialization. The residue of the rectification of petroleum is asphalt, which is either fed into cracking processes for the production of ethylene (ethylene cracker), for example, or is used for road surfacing. For quality assurance in Germany, petroleum products are subject to special DIN standards , which are developed by producers, users and authorities on the Mineral Oil and Fuel Standards Committee (FAM – Fachausschuss für Mineralöl- und Brennstoffnormung) of the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), and form the basis of government regulations such as the Tenth Regulation for the Implementation of the Federal Emissions Control Act (10. in oil trading via Mabanaft and its subsidiaries; in the storage and handling of petroleum products via Oiltanking; in aviation fuelling via Skytanking; and in fuel analysis and quality management via GMA.