Marketing in Middle East Bitumen and Petroleum Market
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Bitumen is a complex and very complicated material that has long been known by humans and has been used in the manufacture of construction and decorative items, artificial prostheses, ship waterproofing and even mummification.
Bitumen occurs naturally from under the earth's crust in the form of springs, lakes and surface mines in solid and liquid form. In fact, it was natural Bitumen that was used by human ancestors in the past and was used in road construction in the late nineteenth century. Asphalt surfaces made with bitumen today provide very smooth and safe roads for light and heavy vehicles and quality runways for landing and take-off of aircraft and even excellent rail infrastructure for trains.
Building moisture insulation and industrial applications such as protective coatings for oil and gas transmission line pipes and power transmission lines all indicate the bitumen coverage and water resistance.
Bitumen is a colloidal compound consisting of several components. The main components of bitumen are asphaltene and Maltin?. In this colloidal system, high-molecular-weight, highly polar asphaltene suspended molecules are dispersed in the oily medium of Maltin solvent. Maltin is an attached phase that contains saturated, aromatic and resin compounds.
Carbon and hydrogen are the two main constituents of hydrocarbons in Petroleum bitumen, in addition to which other elements such as oxygen, sulfur, Nitrogen and a small amount of some Metals are also found. Recognition of hydrocarbons, which are the major constituents of petroleum bitumen, affects all physical, chemical, mechanical and, consequently, bitumen behavior.
Each of the main constituents of bitumen affects the properties and performance of bitumen. The chemical and physical properties of bitumen in general should be evaluated as a result of the effect of these compounds according to their quantitative ratios that differ in different bitumens. Asphalt, for example, causes bitumen to harden, and Maltin provides its adhesion and ductility properties. Maltin affects the bituminous properties of bitumen.
Natural bitumen is the thickest form of petroleum there is, made up of 83% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and lesser amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements. Natural bitumen is the thickest form of petroleum there is, made up of 83% carbon, 10% hydrogen, and lesser amounts of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements. It is a natural polymer of low molecular weight with a remarkable ability to change with temperature variations: at lower temperatures, it is rigid and brittle, at room temperature it is flexible, at higher temperatures bitumen flows. Bitumen is a low-grade crude oil which is composed of complex, heavy hydrocarbons. In an oil reservoir, bitumen is a thick, viscous fluid and must be extracted from the ground. Although bitumen is hard to extract from the ground, it can bubble naturally to the surface of the Earth in petroleum seeps. These seeps are places where fossil fuels and petroleum products leak out of the Earth instead of being trapped deep below the ground. In these seeps, bitumen, asphalt, and tar bubble up into pools. Additionally, bitumen is the main fossil fuel component of oil sands. When bitumen combines with asphaltenes a solid is formed that is useful for paving roads. In addition to being found naturally in seeps and the oil sands, bitumen can be produced by removing lighter fractions from crude oil during the refining process. Fractions that are removed are liquid petroleum gas, gasoline, and diesel. Once crude oil has been extracted from the ground, the production of bitumen can begin. As lighter components rise to the top, heavy components—including the bitumen—fall to the bottom of the column. Finally, the bitumen is obtained by further distilling the residue in a vacuum distillation column. This type of bitumen is known as straight run bitumen. Cutback Bitumen is Bitumen that is dissolved in a solvent. The type of solvent controls the curing time while the amount determines the viscosity of the Cutback Bitumen. Penetration Grade Bitumen is a standard bitumen usually used as a Paving Grade Bitumen essential for road construction and for the production of asphalt pavements with superior properties, and it's very important once it bounds the aggregates and creates a unique cohesion and stability to the bituminous mix. Definition of bitumen penetration grade 60/70 Bitumen penetration grade 60/70 means the penetration value is in the range 60 to 70 at standard test conditions which commonly used as a Paving Grade. Bitumen is applicable for the production of hot mix asphalt for bases and pavements and for road construction. Performance Grade (PG) Bitumen is bitumen which is graded based on its performance at different temperatures. In Superpave grading system, binders are classified according to their performance in extreme hot and cold temperatures and called as performance grade (PG) bitumen. Known also as VG, this type of bitumen is the result of testing the viscosity level of bitumen. By this method of testing, the consistency of bitumen, meaning bitumen’s ability to flow, is measured in both 60° C and 135° C. This test temperature stands for the maximum bitumen temperature in hot summer and the temperature of bitumen when mixed. Viscosity grade bitumen was introduced in the 1970s. In order to increase the reliability of bitumen in higher temperatures and prevent the pavement from rutting, engineers identified more rational parameters (less empirical) for measuring bitumen behavior. Bitumen emulsions provide an alternative approach in which the bitumen is liquefied by dispersing in water. Emulsions can be used with cold and wet aggregates, the final strength of the road material develops as the emulsions 'sets' – revert to a continuous bitumen phase – and water is lost. Emulsified Bitumen usually consists of bitumen droplets suspended in water. In the production of bitumen emulsion, water is treated with an emulsifying agent and other chemicals and is pumped to a colloid mill along with bitumen. The colloid mill breaks the bitumen up into tiny droplets. Polymer modified bitumen (PMB) is one of the specially designed and engineered bitumen grades that are used in making pavement, roads for heavy duty traffic and home roofing solutions to withstand extreme weather conditions. Oxidized Bitumen or Blown bitumen grades are produced by passing air through the penetration grades. This process gives the bitumen more rubbery properties than its original formula and they are simply harder bitumen. Most refined bitumen is used in the construction industry. 85% of all bitumen is used as a binder in asphalt for roads, runways, parking lots, and footpaths. Gravel and crushed rock are mixed with thick bitumen, holding it together and it is then applied to roadways. 10% of the bitumen used worldwide is used in the roofing industry as its waterproofing qualities help make roofs function well. 5% of bitumen is used for sealing and insulating purposes in various building materials such as carpet tile backing and paint. In addition to these main uses, bitumen also has many minor uses. When people talk about asphalt and bitumen, the words are often used to describe the same thing, which is not correct. Bitumen is the liquid binder that holds asphalt together. A bitumen-sealed surface is a layer of bitumen sprayed and then covered with an aggregate. Asphalt is produced in a plant that heats, dries and mixes aggregate, bitumen and sand into a composite.