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Bitumen has been used as a waterproofing material since ancient times and in the time of Sumerians, Assyrians and even many previous civilizations, and it has been mostly used in building and insulating ships against water intrusion and sinking. Also in ancient Egypt and Greece, Bitumen was used to embalm corpses, as well as sculptures and decorations, and even in wars to defend the enemy at the gates of cities.
This valuable material has also been used in combination with baked bricks as mastic in the construction of temples and bridge pillars or as paving the streets and houses. Another application of this very valuable material has been its use as a moisture-proof material and a connecting agent in water storage devices.
Recorded use of bitumen dates back to about 3800 years ago, the time of the Sumerians. The role of bitumen in ancient Iran, which was known as (Mamaton) was also very basic. Khuzestan bitumen, which is known as "Mamaton" during the Achaemenid period, had many applications such as use in tool making, making utensils with bitumen, stamping and ornaments, etc., and also over time this material has religious, military, architectural and He found medicine and played an essential role in the growth and development of the Achaemenid civilization.
The Achaemenid dynasty used bitumen for sealing and waterproofing the palace with the grandeur of Persepolis. Remains of it can be seen in the historical complex of Persepolis. Ancient Susa artists used a mixture of bitumen and heated it to obtain a composition that was very similar to stone. They used this material to make various objects as well as to make sculptures and fossils.