What is Ethylene?
Ethylene is the simplest unsaturated hydrocarbon, obtained mainly through the process of molecular breakdown of hydrocarbons such as ethane, light and heavy naphtha in petrochemicals, and is the first member of the group of alkenes. Its chemical formula is C2H4, there is a double bond between two carbon atoms.
Due to the presence of this Ethylene double bond, is out of conformational isomerism, meaning that the two halves of the molecule cannot change their conformation by rotating around the double bond. It exists in both solid and liquid form, but is often found in the form of gas. This gas has a sweet smell similar to ether. Ethylene is a colorless, flammable gas found in a combination of oil and natural gas. Ethylene is one of the most important raw materials in the petrochemical industry and There are numerous applications for it.
It can be used in the industries of polymerization, synthetic fibers, softening, solvents, antifreeze and alcohol. Ethylene is a plant hormone that causes fruits to ripen, blossoms and flowers to open, and leaves to fall in the autumn. For this property, it is used in agriculture.
Ethylene gas is available in 2 liter, 5 liter, 10 liter, 20 liter, 40 liter, 50 liter capsules at 100 bar and 200 bar capsules in stores.
Due to this property, it is used in agriculture. Ethylene gas is available in 2 liter, 5 liter, 10 liter, 20 liter, 40 liter, 50 liter capsules at 100 bar and 200 bar capsules in stores.
Odorless Ethylene gas, is a colorless gas which created in nature as well as by artificial sources, is not easily detected, it is produced and stored in nature. Its largest producers are plants (such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers), and plants produce it in their tissues and release it around the atmosphere, as well as being artificially made, which is flammable.
History of Ethylene
In 1795, Ethylene gas was called olefin gas. The first synthesis of Ethylene gas compounds (dichlor and ethane) was performed in 1795 by a Dutch chemist. In the middle of the 19th century, because C2H4 had a lower hydrogen than C2H5 ethyl, suffixes (ene) of Greek origin were added to the end of ethyl, and after that olefin gas is called Ethylene gas.
Until 1852, the word Ethylene was used in scientific literatures. In 1866, the German chemist Hoffmann built his hydrocarbon naming system on alkanes. In this system, any hydrocarbon that has two hydrogens less than the corresponding alkane is called a CnH2n alkene, and if it has four hydrogens less than the corresponding alkane, it is called a CnHn alkene.
According to this naming, Ethylene was renamed to ethene. The International Society of Chemists introduced the name IUPAC in 1892, and since then, the name has been used in scientific texts and textbooks.
The hormonal effects of Ethylene on the general growth of plants were first observed in 1864, when gas leakage in street lighting systems led to stunted growth and deformation in nearby plants. In 1901, Niljubo identified the active component of gas, which was Ethylene gas, but this was not known until 1934, when Johnny determined that plants could synthesize this gas, also in 1935, Crocker suggested that this gas can be used for the hormonal response to fruit ripening and aging of vegetative tissue.
Applications of Ethylene
Ethylene is an important raw material for the production of many of the most widely used organic compounds in industry. Ethylene is widely used in the plastics industry. Ethylene polymerizes to produce polyethylene, which is a very important plastic.
By repetition, it produces polyvinyl chloride (PVC) precursors. When combined, benzene forms ethylbenzene, which is the main material of polyester. Ethylene is a plant hormone that causes fruits to ripen, flowers and blossoms to open, and leaves to fall in the autumn. For this property, it is used in agriculture.
Ethylene is widely used in the plastics industry. In fact, Ethylene is one of the basic constituents of excellent materials or polymers in industry. Ethylene is abundant in oil and gas extracted from mines and is one of the downstream petrochemical products. Ethylene gas is used as a very important raw material in industry to produce many organic compounds and in the plastics industry to produce polyethylene, which is a very important plastic, by the method of Ethylene polymerization. The use of Ethylene to combine with benzene and the production of ethyl benzene, which is the main material of polyester, is also noteworthy.
Ethylene production in the Middle East
A total of 22% of the world's Ethylene is produced by Middle Eastern companies. Proximity to consumer markets in Asia, Europe, Africa and countries such as India and China is the main competitiveness of the petrochemical industry.
These industries have developed extensively in recent years, especially among the GCC member states, through access to Gases associated with crude oil, and the region's producers have been pioneers in the production of Ethylene and its ethane derivatives.
With increasing demand in other industries such as power plants and water desalination industries, the supply of gas required by the petrochemical industry in this region has faced difficulties resulting in producers turning to heavier feedstocks such as Naphtha.
According to BP, the total proven oil and gas reserves in the Middle East are 47.9% and 43.2% of the world's total reserves, respectively, It should be mentioned that Iran having the largest gas reserves in the world. In the past, the Middle East petrochemical industry was built to export products to Asian markets, but expert forecasts suggest that in the future, producers in the region should look for new markets to sell their products, as Asian markets will only accept Middle Eastern products until 2009.
Iran currently has seven Ethylene projects under implementation, which are expected to increase the country's Ethylene production capacity by 2025 with the operation of these projects by nearly 6 million and 200 thousand tons. If this is achieved, Iran will have about 32% of the Middle East Ethylene production capacity and 7% of the world's total Ethylene production capacity.
Table 2 shows the ongoing plans of the country's Ethylene and Figure 3 shows the outlook for Iran's share in the Ethylene glycol trade in the Middle East and the world until 2025.