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There is no doubt that none of the chemical elements have played a more important role than Oxygen in the development of chemistry. This life-giving gas was able to make such a huge breakthrough in chemistry in the late eighteenth century that it had never been possible before.
Oxygen can be introduced as the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. This element, which takes the form of Diatomic molecules in its most stable state at standard temperature and pressure, is the oxygen gas or the most vital element for human beings. After the discovery of oxygen, the amount of oxygen present on Earth was generally estimated at 46%, and its amount in the air around us is 20%. The percentage of oxygen in the oceans is estimated at 87% due to the partnership of oxygen in the formation of H2O molecules. In the following text, we will discuss how to discover this element.
Molecular oxygen produces energy in the process of burning, breathing aerobic cells. Many organic molecules in living organisms, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, fats, as well as a wide range of mineral compounds in animal shells, teeth, and bones, have oxygen atoms in themselves. Most living organisms are made up of oxygen, because the animal body is mostly consist of water, and oxygen is the main building block of water.
Oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is continuously supplied by the process of photosynthesis, the process by which sunlight converts water and carbon dioxide into oxygen. Chemically, oxygen is very active and therefore cannot remain free and atomic in fresh air.
In addition to molecular oxygen, oxygen has other deformations, which include ozone. The ozone molecule is able to absorb the ultraviolet light emitted by the sun, and as a result, the ozone layer covering the earth protects life on Earth from destructive ultraviolet rays. However, ozone produced near the Earth's surface is a byproduct of the reaction of smog and is therefore considered a polluting agent.
We explain what oxygen is, when it was discovered and what its properties are. Oxygen (O) is a non-metallic chemical element , normally gaseous, extremely abundant in our atmosphere (it integrates 20. The name of oxygen comes from the ancient Greek oxys (“acid”) and –gonos (“producer, generator”), that is, it means “producer of acids” because in those days it was erroneously assumed that acids always contained oxygen in their structure chemistry. The oxygen molecule is usually diatomic (O 2 ) at room temperature and pressure or triatomic (ozone O 3 ) under specific environmental conditions. In the Periodic Table, oxygen is found at the beginning of group 16 (VIA) , among the non-metallic elements known as ampigens. Oxygen has atomic number 8 and is the second most electron negative element in the Periodic Table (fluorine is the most electronegative). Although many of its properties were known from the study of air since ancient times, oxygen as an element was discovered in 1772 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele . On the contrary, he proposed the existence of a new chemical element: oxygen. Then, in 1877, the physicists Raoul Pictet and Louis Paul Cailletet managed to obtain liquid oxygen , although the amount they obtained was not enough to analyze it. In 1891, the chemist James Dewar managed to obtain an adequate quantity of liquid oxygen for further study and in 1895 the first method was developed to produce it with commercial interest. Oxygen is a highly reactive chemical , capable of forming compounds with almost all known elements except helium (He) and neon (Ne). Under normal conditions of pressure and temperature, oxygen appears as a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas . 04 ml of oxygen per liter, while sea water contains 4. On the other hand, oxygen can condense (go from gas to liquid) at -182. Oxygen has three natural and stable isotopes: 16 O, 17 O and 18 O , of which the former is the most abundant (99. It is known that there are 14 radioactive isotopes of oxygen, of which the most stable is 15 O. Oxygen is essential in life . On the other hand, oxygen is essential for the photosynthesis of plants , algae and certain bacteria . Finally, oxygen is released into the environment as a product of this sequence of reactions. On the contrary, animals and other living beings capable of breathing need atmospheric oxygen to break down the glucose molecules that we obtain from food . Oxygen, due to its high electronegativity, reacts with other elements to form oxides . In oxides, oxygen has a -2 oxidation state, while in peroxides it has -1. The most common inorganic oxygen compound is water (H 2 O), but there are many oxides in which a metallic, non-metallic or metalloid element is combined with oxygen. In organic chemistry , oxygen is a common element as part of complex macromolecules, such as alcohols (R-OH), ethers (ROR), ketones (R-CO-R) , aldehydes (R-CO-H) and esters (R-COO-R) . For this reason, many organic solvents have a strong presence of oxygen. However, most organic compounds with oxygen, unlike inorganic ones, are not produced by their direct action , but as part of more complex chemical processes. Gaseous oxygen (O2) can be a toxic agent in the human body when it is at a pressure greater than 50 kPa. Symptoms of oxygen poisoning include seizures, eye damage, spasms, and neurological damage. On the other hand, being so combustible, the handling of oxygen in high concentrations implies risks of explosion or fire , since the molecule is prone to rapid combustion.